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Mark P. McCahill

Mark P. McCahill
Born (1956-02-07)February 7, 1956
Nationality United States
Occupation Programmer/systems architect
Known for Inventing the Gopher protocol, the predecessor of the World Wide Web; developing and popularizing a number of other Internet technologies

Mark P. McCahill (born February 7, 1956) is an American programmer who has been involved in developing and popularizing a number of Internet technologies since the late 1980s. He led the development of the Gopher protocol, the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web. He was also the first to use the phrase "surfing the Internet.",[1][2][3] He currently works at the Office of Information Technology at Duke University as an architect of 3-D learning and collaborative systems.

Mark McCahill received a BA in Chemistry at the University of Minnesota in 1979, spent one year doing analytical environmental chemistry, and then joined the University of Minnesota Computer Center's microcomputer support group as an Apple II and CDC Cyber programmer.

In 1989, McCahill led the team at the University of Minnesota that developed one of the first popular Internet e-mail clients, POPmail, for the Macintosh (and later the PC). The usage of graphical user interface clients for Internet standards-based protocols proved to be one of the dominant themes in the popularization of the Internet. At about the same time as POPmail was being developed, Steve Dorner at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed Eudora, and the user interface conventions found in these early efforts continue to be present in modern-day e-mail clients.

In 1991, McCahill led the original Gopher development team (Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Dan Torrey, Bob Alberti), which invented a simple way to navigate distributed information resources on the Internet. Gopher's menu-based hypermedia combined with full-text search engines paved the way for the popularization of the World Wide Web and was the de facto standard for Internet information systems in the early to mid 1990s.

Working with other pioneers such as Tim Berners-Lee, Marc Andreessen, Alan Emtage and Peter J. Deutsch (creators of Archie) and Jon Postel, McCahill was involved in creating and codifing the standard for Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).

In 1994-95 McCahill's team developed VRML), the limitied capabilities of mainstream hardware resulted in little uptake of these technologies. Mark McCahill was involved in the Croquet project along with David P. Reed, Andreas Raab, David A Smith, Julian Lombardi, and Alan Kay.

In April 2007, McCahill left the University of Minnesota to join the Office of Information Technology at Duke University as an architect of 3-D learning and collaborative systems.

In February 2010, Mark McCahill was revealed by Peter Ludlow (Urizenus Sklar) to be the Internet persona Pixeleen Mistral, the editor of The Alphaville Herald, a newspaper covering virtual worlds founded by Ludlow.[4]


  1. ^!msg/alt.gopher/zqiTHVjsHXA/ueC2uPt8u-cJ
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Pixeleen Mistral Files Legal Response to Venkman’s DMCA Abuses". The Alphaville Herald. February 6, 2010. 

External links

  • "Oral History Interview with Mark P. McCahill".  
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