World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mental Deficiency Act 1913

The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 was an act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which made provisions for the institutional treatment of people deemed to be "feeble-minded" and "moral defectives".[1] "It proposed an institutional separation so that mental defectives should be taken out of Poor Law institutions and prisons into newly established colonies."[2]


  • Background 1
  • The Mental Deficiency Act 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The Idiots Act 1886 made the legal distinction between "idiots" and "imbeciles". It contained educational provisions for the needs of people deemed to be in these categories. In 1904 the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble-Minded was set up with the warrant "to consider the existing methods of dealing with idiots and epileptics, and with imbecile, feeble-minded, or defective persons not certified under the Lunacy Laws... to report as to the amendments in the law or other measures which should be adopted in the matter".[3] The Commission returned a lengthy report in 1908 which estimated that of a population of 32,527,843 British inhabitants 149,628 people (0.46%) were considered "mentally defective". It recommended the establishment of a board of control which would oversee local authority efforts aimed at "the well-being of the mentally defective".[4][5]

Winston Churchill spoke of the need to introduce compulsory labour camps for "mental defectives" in the House of Commons in February 1911. In May 1912 a Private Members' Bill entitled the "Feeble-Minded Control Bill" was introduced in the House of Commons, which called for the implementation of the Royal Commission's conclusions. It rejected sterilisation of the "feeble-minded", but had provision for registration and segregation.[6] One of the few voices raised against the bill was that of G.K. Chesterton who ridiculed the bill, calling it the "Feeble-Minded Bill, both for brevity and because the description is strictly accurate".[7] The bill was withdrawn, but a government bill introduced on 10 June 1912 replaced it, which would become the Mental Deficiency Act 1913.[6]

The Mental Deficiency Act

The bill was passed in 1913 with only three MPs voting against it.[6] One of them was Josiah Wedgwood, who said of it, "It is a spirit of the Horrible Eugenic Society which is setting out to breed up the working class as though they were cattle."[8] The new act repealed the Idiots Act 1886 and followed the recommendations of the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble-Minded. It established the Board of Control for Lunacy and Mental Deficiency to oversee the implementation of provisions for the care and management of four classes of people,

a) Idiots. Those so deeply defective as to be unable to guard themselves against common physical dangers.
b) Imbeciles. Whose defectiveness does not amount to idiocy, but is so pronounced that they are incapable of managing themselves or their affairs, or, in the case of children, of being taught to do so.
c) Feeble-minded persons. Whose weakness does not amount to imbecility, yet who require care, supervision, or control, for their protection or for the protection of others, or, in the case of children, are incapable of receiving benefit from the instruction in ordinary schools.
d) Moral Imbeciles. Displaying mental weakness coupled with strong vicious or criminal propensities, and on whom punishment has little or no deterrent effect.[9]

A person deemed to be an idiot or imbecile might be placed in an institution or under guardianship if the parent or guardian so petitioned, as could a person of any of the four categories under 21 years, as could a person of any category who had been abandoned, neglected, guilty of a crime, in a state institution, habitually drunk, or unable to be schooled.[10]

At the height of operation of the Mental Deficiency Act, 65,000 people were placed in "colonies" or in other institutional settings. The act remained in effect until it was repealed by the Mental Health Act 1959.[11]


  1. ^ "Mental Health (History) Dictionary". Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  2. ^ Anne Digby, "Contexts and perspectives" inDavid Wright, Anne Digby, ed. (1996). From Idiocy to Mental Deficiency: Historical Perspectives on People With Learning Disabilities. London: Routledge.   1-21
  3. ^ Report of the Royal Commission on the Care And Control of the Feebleminded. His Majesty's Stationery Office. 1908. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  4. ^ British Medical Journal #2485, Aug. 15, 1908, pp. 415
  5. ^ Charles Paget Lapage (1911). Feeblemindedness in Children of School-Age. Manchester University Press. pp. 11–45. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c Sir Martin Gilbert CBE (31 May 2009). "Churchill and Eugenics". 
  7. ^ Eugenics and Other Evils, 1923, Chapter 2.
  8. ^ Jayne Woodhouse, "Eugenics and the feeble-minded: the Parliamentary debates of 1912-14", History of Education 11:2, 133
  9. ^ Gattie, W. H., Holt-Hughes, T. H., "Note on the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913", The Law Quarterly Review 30 (1914) 202
  10. ^ Gattie, W. H., Holt-Hughes, T. H., "Note on the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913", The Law Quarterly Review 30 (1914) 209
  11. ^ Jan Walmsley, "Women and the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913: citizenship, sexuality and regulation", British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (2000), 65.

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.