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Metamonad

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Title: Metamonad  
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Subject: Diplomonad, Excavate, Dientamoeba fragilis, Dinenympha, Hexamita
Collection: Flagellates, Metamonads
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Metamonad

Metamonads
Giardia lamblia, a parasitic diplomonad
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Metamonada
Grassé 1952 emend.
Classes & orders

Eopharyngia
   Retortamonadida
   Diplomonadida
   Carpediemonas
Parabasalia
Anaeromonadida
   Oxymonadida
   Trimastix

The metamonads are a large group of anaerobic, occurring mostly as symbiotes of animals.

Contents

  • Characteristics 1
  • Classification 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Characteristics

A number of parabasalids and oxymonads are found in termite guts, and play an important role in breaking down the cellulose found in wood. Some other metamonads are parasites.

These flagellates are unusual in lacking hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen, and small structures called mitosomes.

All of these groups are united by having flagella or basal bodies in characteristic groups of four, which are often associated with the nucleus, forming a structure called a karyomastigont. In addition, the genera Carpediemonas and Trimastix are now known to be close relatives of the retortamonad-diplomonad line and the oxymonads, respectively. Both are free-living and amitochondriate.

Classification

The metamonads make up part of the excavates, a eukaryotic supergroup including flagellates with feeding grooves and their close relatives. Their relationships are uncertain,[1] and they do not always appear together on molecular trees. It is possible that the metamonads as defined here do not form a monophyletic subgroup.

References

  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (November 2003). "The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas): their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53 (Pt 6): 1741–58.  

External links

  • Tree of Life: Fornicata
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