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Methylchloroisothiazolinone

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Methylchloroisothiazolinone

Methylchloroisothiazolinone
Methylchloroisothiazolinone
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C4H4ClNOS
Molar mass 149.60 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 1.02 g/cm³
Solubility in water Miscible
Hazards
R-phrases R50/53
S-phrases (S2) S26 S28 S36/37/39 S45 S60 S61
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY   YesY/N?)

Methylchloroisothiazolinone (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one), also referred to as MCI, is a preservative with antibacterial and antifungal effects within the group of isothiazolinones. It is effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi.

Methylchloroisothiazolinone is found in many water-based personal care products and cosmetics.[1] Methylchloroisothiazolinone was first used in cosmetics in the 1970s. It is also used in glue production, detergents, paints, fuels, and other industrial processes. Methylchloroisothiazolinone is known by the registered tradename Kathon CG when used in combination with methylisothiazolinone.[2]

Methylchloroisothiazolinone may be used in combination with other preservatives including ethylparaben, benzalkonium chloride, or 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol.

Safety

In pure form or in high concentrations, methylchloroisothiazolinone is a skin and membrane irritant and causes chemical burns. In the United States, accepted concentrations are 15 ppm in rinse-offs and 8 ppm in other cosmetics.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), does not currently list methylchloroisothiazolinone as a known, probable, or possible human carcinogen,[3] nor have in vivo tests found evidence of carcinogenic activity.

Allergic contact dermatitis

Methylchloroisothiazolinone is an allergen and can cause severe skin reactions in some people. Since 2013 the use of the product particularly in cosmetics has received increased media coverage in the UK. In 2013 GP doctors asked cosmetics companies to remove it from products.[4] Some cosmetics with the MI in have been investigated by the BBC Watchdog programme.[5] The first publication of the preservative as a contact allergen was in 1988.[6] A common indication of an allergic reaction is eczema-like symptoms including redness and itching, and upon longer exposure also burning sensations and blisters on the part of the skin that is exposed to the allergen. Continued exposure can lead to high sensitization which will be triggered each time the individual comes in contact with the allergen due to the memory T-cells that will remain in the local skin area.

References

  1. ^ Reinhard et al. (2001). "Preservation of products with MCI/MI in Switzerland". Contact Dermatitis 45 (5): 257–264.  
  2. ^ Knudsen BB, Menne T (1990). "Kathon CG--a new contact sensitizing preservative". Ugeskr Laeger 152 (10): 656–657.  
  3. ^ "International Agency for Research on Cancer". IARC (updated November 2007). Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
  4. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2424095/Cosmetics-causing-epidemic-allergies-Doctors-urge-firms-remove-preservatives-products.html
  5. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/5ZPXlnyFQlfsdWjQFC9kx2B/johnson-johnson-reformulate-suncream-recipe-after-watchdog-investigation
  6. ^ De Groot, A. C.; Weyland, J. W. (1988). "Kathon CG: A review". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 18 (2 Pt 1): 350–358.  

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