World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

Article Id: WHEBN0001196424
Reproduction Date:

Title: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lahore Resolution, Liaquat Ali Khan, Round Table Conferences (India), Mohammad Ali Bogra, Osvaldo Aranha
Collection: 1893 Births, 1985 Deaths, All India Muslim League Members, Alumni of King's College London, Foreign Ministers of Pakistan, Government College University, Lahore Alumni, Indian Knights, Knights Bachelor, Knights Commander of the Order of the Star of India, Leaders of the Pakistan Movement, Members of Central Legislative Assembly of India, Pakistani Ahmadis, Pakistani Judges, Pakistani Muslims, Pakistani Politicians, People from Sialkot District, Permanent Representatives of Pakistan to the United Nations, Presidents of the International Court of Justice, Presidents of the United Nations General Assembly, Punjabi People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan
محمد ظفر اللہ خان
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
27 December 1947 – 24 October 1954
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Preceded by Liaquat Ali Khan
Succeeded by Muhammad Ali Bogra
Personal details
Born (1893-02-06)6 February 1893
Daska, British Raj
(now Pakistan)
Died 1 September 1985(1985-09-01) (aged 92)
Lahore, Pakistan
Political party All-India Muslim League (Before 1947)
Muslim League (1947–1958)
Alma mater Government College University, Lahore
King's College, London


He was a delegate in 1930, 1931, and 1932 to the Round Table Conferences on Indian reforms in London, England. In 1931–1932 he was president of the Muslim League, and he sat on the British Viceroy's Executive Council as its member from 1935 to 1941. He led the Indian delegation to the League of Nations in 1939, and from 1941 to 1947 he served as a judge of the Federal Court of India.[4]


  • Family and early life 1
  • Career 2
  • Religion 3
  • Legacy 4
  • Bibliography 5
    • Books 5.1
    • Speeches 5.2
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Family and early life

Sir Zafarullah Khan's father was Ch. Nasrullah Khan who was the leading attorney of his native city of [3][5]


Muhammad Zafarullah Khan was elected a member of the Punjab Legislative Council in 1926 and presided at the Delhi meeting of the All-India Muslim League in 1931, where he advocated the cause of the Indian Muslims through his presidential address. He participated at the Round Table Conferences held from 1930 to 1932 and became the Minister of Railways in May 1935. In 1939, he represented India at the League of Nations. He was appointed the Agent General of India in China in 1942 and represented India as the Indian Government's nominee at the Commonwealth Relations Conference in 1945, where he spoke on India's cause for freedom.

The Second Round Table Conference, September 7, 1931, with Zafarullah Khan seated to the rear of the table (closest to the camera)

From 1935 to 1941, he was a member of the Executive Council of the Viceroy of India. During this period, Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy, told the leaders of the Muslim League that the Government of Great Britain intended to divide India into three dominions – among the Hindus, the Muslims, and the Rulers of Princely States. Within the Muslim League Working Committee, various sub-committees were established, numerous proposals were presented with the final decision resting with the British. However, when the British saw that their objectives could not be met, they unilaterally rejected all proposals submitted by the Muslims. At this point, Zafarullah Khan was asked to submit a proposal on the partition of India, about which the Viceroy wrote to the Secretary of State for India:

The Viceroy further explained that since Zafarullah Khan was a Qadiani, he had to be cautious. Orthodox Muslims would become irritated if they found that this proposal was prepared by an Ahmadi. The Viceroy stated that Muhammad Ali Jinnah had been given a copy to gain acceptance from the Muslim League and publicise its contents. Akbar Hydari was given a copy because he was responsible for fund raising. Twelve days after it had been proposed, the Muslim League adopted the proposal at the Lahore Conference, calling it the Pakistan Resolution.[4]

In September 1941, Zafarullah Khan was appointed a Judge of the Federal Court of India, a position he held until June 1947. At the request of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he represented the Muslim League in July 1947 before the Radcliffe Boundary Commission and presented the case of the Muslims in a highly commendable manner. Zafarullah Khan advised the Nawab of Junagadh that if he decided to join his state with Pakistan, it would be both moral and legal. The Nawab then proceeded to announce his decision.[6]

In October 1947, Zafarullah represented Pakistan at the United Nations General Assembly as head of the Pakistani delegation and advocated the position of the Muslim world on the Palestinian issue. That year, he was appointed Pakistan's first Foreign Minister, a post he held for seven years. Between 1948 and 1954, he also represented Pakistan at the United Nations Security Council where he advocated the liberation of occupied Kashmir, Libya, Northern Ireland, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco, and Indonesia.

As Foreign Minister, he represented Pakistan at the Manila Treaty Conference in September 1954. Support for the SEATO). In the 1953 bloody Lahore riots, religious extremists called for Zafarullah Khan's expulsion due to his adherence to the Ahmadiyya Muslim faith. This resulted in the first instance of martial law in the history of Pakistan. Details are recorded in the Munir Commission Report.[7] The pressure from religious extremists finally led to Zafarullah's resignation as Foreign Minister in October 1954.

In 1954, he became a Judge at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague, a position he held until 1961. He was the Vice-President of the International Court of Justice from 1958 to 1961. Between 1961 and 1964, he was Pakistan's Permanent Representative at the United Nations. From 1962 to 1964, he was also the President of the UN General Assembly. He later rejoined the ICJ as a judge from 1964 to 1973, serving as President from 1970 to 1973.[8]


As an active member of the Ahmadiyya Community, Zafarullah Khan held the office of president of the Lahore, Pakistan chapter of the community from 1919 to 1935. He served as Secretary to Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmood, the second successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, at Majlis-e-Shura for the first time in 1924, and continued to do so for 17 more sessions. In addition, he was a member of the delegation which represented the Qadianis at the All Parties Conference held in 1924. In 1927, he acted successfully as representative counsel for the Muslims of the Punjab in the contempt of court case against the Muslim Outlook.

As Pakistan's first Foreign Minister, Zafarullah Khan addressed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan in the days leading up to the passing of the Objectives Resolution. The Objectives Resolution, which combined features of both Western and Islamic democracy, is one of the most important documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It was designed to provide equal rights for all citizens of Pakistan, regardless of their race, religion or background. Zafarullah Khan was quoted as saying:


Sir Zaffrullah Khan is considered one of the most influential, skilled, and passionate diplomats of his time. Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali, a former Foreign Minister of Iraq, in a tribute on his death last year, wrote:

The Dawn of Karachi admitted that:

In a personal tribute, His Majesty King Hussein bin Tallal of Jordan said:

After living in England from 1973 to 1983, Zafarullah Khan returned to Pakistan. He died in Lahore on 1 September 1985 following a protracted illness.[10] He was buried at Bahishti Maqbara in Rabwah, Pakistan, a cemetery established by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.



  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1962). The Excellent Exemplar Muhammad: The Messenger of Allah. London Mosque. p. 65. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah. The Message of Islam. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah. Victory of Prayer Over Prejudice. London Mosque. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (2001). Letter to a Dear One (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 116.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (2006). Hazrat Maulvi Nooruddeen Khalifatul Masih I (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 350.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1967). Islam and Human Rights (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 79.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1967). Wisdom of the Holy Prophet (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 91.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1962). Islam – Its Meaning for Modern Man (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 386.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah. Punishment of Apostacy in Islam. Islam International Publications. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1991). Women in Islam (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 39.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1980). Muhammad: Seal of the Prophets. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1978). Ahmadiyyat: The Renaissance of Islam (PDF). Tabshir Publications. p. 370. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1978). My Mother (PDF). London Mosque. p. 117. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (1978). Deliverance from the Cross (PDF). London Mosque. p. 110.  
  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah. Islam and Modern Family (Audio Book). Retrieved 9 March 2011. 


  • Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah (10 September 1958). The Contribution of Islam to the Solution of World Problems (Speech). 16th Congress of International Association for Religious Freedom. Chicago, USA. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 


  1. ^ "Presidents of the General Assembly of the United Nations". Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "All Members | International Court of Justice". Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Brief Life Sketch of Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan". Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Khan, Wali. "Facts are Facts: The Untold Story of India's Partition" (PDF). pp. 40–42. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  5. ^ The Reminiscences of Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan by Columbia University p. 1,238 "THE REMINISCENCES OF SIR MUHAMMAD ZAFRULLA KHAN" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Singh, Iqbal. Between Two Fires: Towards an Understanding of Jawaharlal Nehru's Foreign Policy, Volume 2. pp. 41–44. 
  7. ^ Justice Munir Enquiry Report on Anti-Ahmadiyya riots of 1953 (English)
  8. ^ International Court of Justice, Members of the Court.
  9. ^ Shourie, Arun. "Surely, the Basic Lesson Flows from the Basic Premise". Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Maulana Dost Muhammad Shahid Sahib. "Brief Life Sketch of Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan". Al Islam. Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 

External links

  • Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan in United Nations – Short Video Clips
  • Video – President of the seventeenth session of General Assembly on YouTube
  • Video – First Foreign Minister of Pakistan in UN on YouTube
  • Pictures of Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
  • Elected President of the seventeenth session of the General Assembly (UN)
  • Round Table Conferences (1930–33)
  • Remembering Zafrulla Khan by Khalid Hasan
  • Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarullah Khan's Services to Pakistan and The Muslim World
  • Brief Life Sketch of Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan
  • Forgotten: Sir Zafrullah Khan (1893–1983) by Yasser Latif Hamdani
  • Son of Liaqut Ali Khan on services of Sir Zafarullah Khan on YouTube
  • Justice Munir Enquiry Report on Anti-Ahmadiyya riots of 1953 (Urdu)
  • Justice Munir Enquiry Report on Anti-Ahmadiyya riots of 1953 (English)
  • "Sir Chaudhry Muhammad Zafrullah Khan (ra) – Home". Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Liaquat Ali Khan
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Aly Khan
Ambassador to the United Nations
Succeeded by
Amjad Ali
Preceded by
Mongi Slim
President of the United Nations General Assembly
Succeeded by
Carlos Sosa Rodriguez
Preceded by
Feodor Kozhevnikov
President of the International Court of Justice
Succeeded by
Hersch Lauterpacht
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.