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Music sequencer


Music sequencer

A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically MIDI or CV/Gate, and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins.


  • Overview 1
    • Types of music sequencers 1.1
  • Modern sequencers 2
  • History 3
    • Early sequencers 3.1
    • Analog sequencers 3.2
    • Step sequencers 3.3
    • Computer music 3.4
    • Digital sequencers 3.5
    • Software sequencers 3.6
    • Visual timeline of rhythm sequencers 3.7
  • Hardware sequencers 4
    • Rotating object with pins or holes 4.1
    • Punched paper 4.2
    • Sound-on-film 4.3
    • Electro-mechanical sequencers 4.4
    • Analog sequencers 4.5
      • Analog-style step sequencers 4.5.1
    • Step sequencers (supported on) 4.6
    • Digital sequencers 4.7
      • MIDI sequencers 4.7.1
      • Open-source hardware 4.7.2
  • Software sequencers and DAWs with sequencing features 5
    • Free/Open Source 5.1
    • Commercial 5.2
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Types of music sequencers

As mentioned above, music sequencers are often categorized by handling data types, as following:

Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes.

Realtime sequencer (realtime recording mode)
A realtime sequencer on the synthesizer
Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, and play back musical notes with designated tempo, quantizations, and pitch. For editing, usually "punch in/punch out" feature originated in the tape recording is provided, although it requires enough skills to obtain desired result. For detailed editing, possibly another visual editing modes under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to the audio recorder already familiarized by musicians, and it is widely supported on software sequencer, DAW, and built-in hardware sequencers.
Analog sequencer
An analog sequencer
trance music.
Step sequencer (step recording mode)
step rhythm sequencer on the drum machine
A step note sequencer on the bass machine
On the step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into the steps of equal time-interval, and users can enter each musical note without exact timing; Instead, each timing and duration of step are designated in several ways:
  • On the drum machines: select a trigger timing from a row of step-buttons.
  • On the bass machines: select a step note (or rest) from a chromatic keypads, then select a step duration (or tie) from a group of length-buttons, sequentially.
  • On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided; using it, notes on the pre-recorded sequence can be triggered in arbitrary timings for the timing dedicated recordings or performances. (See #Step sequencers (supported on))
In general, step mode, along with roughly quantized semi-realtime mode, is often supported on the analog drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines.
Software sequencer
Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, and often provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments. The features provided vary widely depending on the software; even an analog sequencer can be simulated. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller.
Typical features on software sequencers

Numerical editor on Tracker

Score editor

Piano roll editor
with strip chart

Audio and MIDI tracks on DAW

Loop sequencer

Sample editor
with beat slicer

Vocal editor
for pitch and timing

Modern sequencers

Today's typical software sequencer, supporting multitrack audio (DAW) and plug-ins (Steinberg Cubase 6[1])
User interface on Steinberg Cubase v6.0, a digital audio workstation with an integrated software sequencer.

With the advent of MIDI and particularly Atari ST in the 1980s, programmers were able to write software that could record and play back the notes played by a musician. Unlike the early sequencers used to play mechanical sounding sequence with exactly equal length, the new ones recorded and played back expressive performances by real musicians. These were typically used to control external synthesizers, especially rackmounted sound modules as it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own keyboard.

As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, and integrated the ability to record multitrack audio. Sequencers mainly used for audio are often called digital audio workstations (or DAWs).

Many modern sequencers can also control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins, allowing musicians to replace separate synthesizers with software equivalents.

Today the term "sequencer" is often used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still also standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished greatly due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts.


Early sequencers

Barrel with pins on the large stationary barrel-organ
Music roll
on barrel organ
Player piano (1920) controlled by piano roll.
RCA Mark II (1957),
controlled via wide punched paper roll

The early music sequencers had appeared in the form of various player pianos, Orchestrions, etc. For example, authoring process of piano roll fits the definition of "music sequencer": composers record their music composition on the piano rolls, then specialists edit the rolls as the preparation before mass duplication, and finally consumers play back the music on their player pianos.

The origin of automatic musical instruments seems considerably old. As early as the 9th century, Persian inventors

  • "History of electronic musical instruments and sequencers". 120 Years of Electronic Music ( 
  • "Early sequencer controllers". Vintage Synth Explorer. 
  • Richmond, Leigh (11 November 1974). "Computer hums its own music". Evening Times (Melbourne, FL). p. A1.  (1974 newspaper article about digital sequencer)
  • "The sequencer comparison chart". Archived from the original on 2010-03-18. 
  • "A list of software DAWs, Sequencers, Hosts, etc.". 
  • "Audio Sequencers on Shareware Music Machine". 
  • "MIDI Sequencers on Shareware Music Machine". 

External links

  1. ^ "Cubase 6 screenshot licensed under CC-BY-SA-3.0". Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. 
  2. ^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments". Music Educators Journal (Music Educators Journal) 54 (2): 45–49.  
  3. ^ Koetsier, Teun (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators". Mechanism and Machine Theory (Elsevier) 36 (5): 589–603.  
  4. ^  
  5. ^  
  6. ^ "The RCA Synthesiser". 120 Years of Electronic Music (  — (PDF version is available)
  7. ^ a b "Das Siemens-Studio für elektronische Musik von Alexander Schaaf und Helmut Klein" (in Deutsch).  
  8. ^ a b Holmes, Thom (2008). Electronic and experimental music: technology, music, and culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 222.  
  9. ^ a b "Wall of Sound (sequencer)". 
  10. ^ a b Robert Moog. "Memories of Raymond Scott". 
  11. ^ a b "Circle Machine".  — includes 2 sound files: Raymond Scott's demonstration, and commercial soundtrack for new batteries of Ford Motors.
  12. ^ Jörgen Städje (2012-10-06). "Andromatic, den automatiska andromedaren". International Data Group (IDG). 
  13. ^ "EKO Computerhythm (1972)". Jarrography - The ultimate Jean Michel Jarre discography. 
  14. ^ "EKO Computerhythm". 
  15. ^ "Multivox International". SYNRISE (in Germany). Archived from the original on 2003-04-20. 
  16. ^ "CSIRAC: Australia's first computer". Australia:  
  17. ^ Fildes, Jonathan (2008-06-17). Oldest' computer music unveiled"'".   — another oldest known recording of computer realized music played by the Ferranti Mark 1, captured by BBC in Autumn, 1951; the songs Baa Baa Black Sheep and In the Mood.
  18. ^ Hiller, Lejaren (Winter 1981). "Composing with Computer: A Progress Report". Computer Music Journal 5 (4). 
    also available in Curtis Roads (ed.). The Music Machine: Selected Readings from Computer Music Journal. MIT Press (1989/1992). pp. 75.  
  19. ^ Hinton, Graham (2001). "Synthi 100 (1971, formerly Digitana, aka the Delaware)". Electronic Music Studios (Cornwall). 
  20. ^ Hinton, Graham (2001). "Synthi Sequencer 256 (1971, formerly Synthi Moog Sequencer)". Electronic Music Studios (Cornwall). 
  21. ^ J.Michmerhuizen (Boston School of Electronic Music); Thomas E. Oberheim (Oberheim Electronics) (June 1974). DS-2 Digital Sequencer Instruction and Service Manual. 
  22. ^ "Model 800 Sequencer". 
  23. ^ Russ, Martin (2008). Sound Synthesis and Sampling.  
  24. ^ Gordon Reid. "The History Of Roland Part 1: 1930-1978".  
  25. ^ "Synclavier Early History". Synclavier European Services. 
  26. ^ Joel Chadabe (May 1, 2001). "The Electronic Century Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician. In September 1977, I bought the first Synclavier, although mine came without the special keyboard and control panel ... (see Fig. 1 on the page). 
  27. ^ "The Composer-Tron (1953)". 120 Years of Electronic Music ( 
  28. ^ "Daphne Oram and 'Oramics' (1959)". 120 Years of Electronic Music ( 
  29. ^ US patent 3,207,835, Howard E. Holman and Joseph H. Hearne (Wurlitzer Company), "Rhythm Device", issued 1965-09-21 
  30. ^ "Moog 960 Sequential Controller".  — 3×8-step sequencer module
  31. ^ "Moog 961 Interface".  — interface module to convert several signal types including audio input, V-trigger (CV), and S-trigger (short-to-ground trigger for Envelope Controller)
  32. ^ "Moog 962 Sequential Switch".  — switching module for 960 to convert 3x8-step sequence into 1x24-step sequence, etc.
  33. ^ """Synthesizer 2C with optional 960 and 961 - 1968 Modular System "Synthesizer 2.  — On the, the photograph with caption "Synthesizer 2C with optional 960 and 961" on this page seems to be the earliest record of Moog's sequencer module.
  34. ^ MFB-URZWERG, MFB Musik Elektronik 
  35. ^ MFB-URZWERG Pro, MFB Musik Elektronik 
  36. ^ Roland EF-303 Groove Effects - Owner's manual, Roland Corporation, pp. 48, 53, 54 
  37. ^ Sequencer MFB-STEP64, MFB Musik Elektronik 
  38. ^ "SM0600 Project - A Digital Sequencer - Rebuilding the Roland CSQ-700". Emulator Archive. 
  39. ^ Brandon Amison (17 Jul 1999). "Yaking Cat Music Studios QAQA answers - Subject:0033 Re:Clothing ETC.". Yaking Cat Music Studios (Synclavier Assistance). 
  40. ^ Furia, Steve De; Joe Scacciaferro (1986). The MIDI implementation book. Third Earth Pub. p. 25.   — MIDI Implementation Chart of Synclavier MIDI Option v0.9 in 1985.
  41. ^ Williams, Tonny (January 24, 1984), Rhodes Keyboards Instruments Chroma Computer Interface Model 1611 Rev 5 – Sequencer Manual, CBS Inc. 
  42. ^ "External Key Code Interface Circuit", Yamaha CS70M Servicing Manual, Yamaha Corporation, October 1981, p. 24 
  43. ^ "AM MSQ700 Nexus - MIDI Sequencer". Emulator Archive. 
  44. ^ Rebeltech
  45. ^ BRELS Midi Editor
  46. ^ Edge,
  47. ^ Hex,
  48. ^ PianoRollComposer,
  49. ^ Sekaiju,
  50. ^ harmonySEQ
  51. ^ Seq24,
  52. ^ PianoCheetah
  53. ^ Frinika
  54. ^ ThunderBeatD3
  55. ^ The Buzz Machines
  56. ^ Bars and Pipes Professional,
  57. ^ B-Step Sequencer
  58. ^ Improvisor
  59. ^ Percussa
  60. ^ Numerology,
  61. ^ One Man Band
  62. ^ Musette
  63. ^ MU.LAB,
  64. ^ Audio Evolution
  65. ^ energyXT
  66. ^ Metro
  67. ^ SAWStudio
  68. ^ Turbo Play,
  69. ^ Live Touch XJ
  70. ^ Loopseque
  71. ^ Project5
  72. ^ Sinfonia
  73. ^ WinAudio


  1. ^ The term "audio sequencer" seems to be relatively new expression and seems to be not clearly defined, yet. For example, "DAW integrated with MIDI sequencer" is often referred as "Audio and MIDI sequencer". However, in this usage, the term "audio sequencer" is just a synonym for the "DAW", and beyond the scope of this article. In that case, please check Digital audio workstation.


See also

Not categorized yet
Realtime orchestral accompaniments
  • Sinfonia,[72] from Realtime Music Solutions (Note: It seems not the sequencer)
Hard Disk recorder solutions for MIDI sequencers
  • WinAudio[73] from Zadok Audio & Media Products
MIDI sequencers
  • midiSequencer - IPAD analog midi sequencer (Lite & full version)
  • Bars and Pipes Professional[56] - Amiga (classic) (gratis)
  • B-Step Sequencer[57] - Chord based step sequencer for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, iPad and Raspberry Pi
  • Improvisor[58] - midi sequencer for generative music by Percussa,[59] works together with AudioCubes
  • Master Tracks Pro from Passport Music Software
  • Numerology[60] Modular step sequencer for Mac OS X
Realtime arrangers with MIDI sequencers
  • One Man Band[61]
  • Musette[62] - Windows (gratis)

Loop-oriented DAWs with MIDI sequencers
Tracker-oriented DAWs with MIDI sequencers
DAWs with MIDI sequencers
Loop-based audio sequencers
  • Live Touch XJ,[69] from Ematrade - Android 3.0 Honeycomb tablet
  • Loopseque[70] from Casual Underground Lab - iPad/iPhone
Integrated software studio environments


MIDI sequencers
  • Aria Maestosa - Windows, Linux, Mac
  • BRELS Midi Editor[45] - Windows
  • Edge[46] - online MIDI Sequencer, (requires a web browser and QuickTime Player plugin installed)
  • Hex[47] - Windows, Mac. A full-featured MIDI sequencer, designed for microtonal music.
  • PianoRollComposer[48] - Windows
  • Sekaiju[49] - Windows
Loop-based MIDI sequencers
  • harmonySEQ[50] - Linux
  • Seq24[51] - Linux, Windows
Piano training software
  • PianoCheetah[52] - Windows (freeware) (Guitar Hero style)
DAW with MIDI sequencers
Loop-based audio sequencers
  • ThunderBeatD3[54] - Windows XP Vista 7 (freeware)
Integrated software studio environments
  • The Buzz Machines[55] - Windows
Drum machines

Free/Open Source

Software sequencers and DAWs with sequencing features

Open-source hardware

Palmtop MIDI sequencers
Accompaniment machines
MIDI sequencers with embedded sound module
MIDI phrase sequencers
Standalone MIDI sequencers

MIDI sequencers

Proprietary digital interfaces (pre MIDI era)
Also often support Gate clock and DIN sync interfaces.

Digital sequencers

In addition, newly designed hardware MIDI sequencers equipping a series of knobs/sliders similar to analog sequencers, are appeared. For details, see #Analog-style MIDI step sequencers.
Recently emerging button-grid-style interfaces/instruments are naturally support step sequence. On these machines, one axis on grid means musical scale, and another axis means timing of notes.
Button-grid-style step sequencers
Other groovebox-type machines (including several music production machines) also often support step recording mode, of course:
Groovebox-type machines with white & black chromatic keypads, often support step recording mode along with realtime recording mode:

Embedded self-contained step sequencers
Several tiny keyboards provide a step sequencer combined with an independent timing mode for recording and performance:
  • Casio VL-Tone VL-1 (1979), Casiotone MT-70 (c.1984), Sampletone SK-1 (1986), etc — Timings of musical notes stored on the step sequencer, can be designated by the two trigger buttons labeled "One Key Play", around the right hand position.
Embedded CV/Gate step sequencers
Several machines have white & black chromatic keypads, to enter the musical phrases.
Embedded MIDI step sequencers
  • MFB Step 64 — Standalone step sequencer dedicated for drum patterns (16steps/4tracks or 64steps/1tracks, 118program×4banks, 16song sequences, each with up to 128 sequences)[37]
Typical step sequencers are integrated on drum machines, bass machines, groove machines, music production machines, and these software versions. Often, these also support the semi-realtime recording mode, too.

Step sequencers (supported on)

Several machines also provide the song mode to play the sequence of memoried patterns in specified order, as on drum machine.

Analog-style MIDI step sequencers
Since the analog synthesizer revivals in the 1990s, newly designed MIDI sequencers with a series of knobs or slider similar to analog sequencer have been appeared. These often equip CV/Gate and DIN sync interface along with MIDI, and even the patch memory for multiple sequence patterns and possibly song sequence. These analog-digital hybrid machines are often called "Analog-style MIDI step sequencer" or "MIDI analog sequencer", etc.
Quasimidi Polymorph (1999) has built-in step sequencer with a series of value knobs (bottom)
Analog-style MIDI pattern sequencers

Analog-style step sequencers

  • Buchla 100's sequencer modules (1964/1966–) — One of the earliest analog sequencer on the modular synthesizer era since 1960. Later, Robert Moog admired Buchla's unique works including it.[8]
  • Moog 960 Sequential Controller[30] / 961 Interface[31] / 962 Sequential Switch[32] (c.1968)[33]
    modules for the Moog modular synthesizer system, a popular analog sequencer following earliest Buchla sequencer.
Analog sequencers with CV/Gate interface
Moog 960 Sequential Controller and 962 Sequential Switch

Analog sequencers

Electro-mechanical sequencers

  • Variophone (1930) by Evgeny Sholpo — on earliest version, hand drawn waves on film or disc were used to synthesize sound, and later versions were promised to experiment on musical intonations and temporal characteristics of live music performance, however not finished. Variophone is often referred as a forerunner of drawn sound system including ANS synthesizer and Oramics.
  • Composer-Tron (1953) by Osmond Kendal — rhythmical sequences were controlled via marking cue on film, while timbre of note or envelope-shape of sound were defined via hand drawn shapes on a surface of CRT input device, drawn with a grease pencil.[27]
  • ANS synthesizer (1938-1958) by Evgeny Murzin — An earliest realtime additive synthesizer using 720 microtonal sine waves (1/6 semitones × 10 octaves) generated by five glas discs. Composers could control time evolution of amplitudes of each microtones via scratches on glass plate user interface covered with black mastic.
  • Oramics (1957) by Daphne Oram — hand drawn contours on a set of ten sprocketed synchronized strips of 35 film were used to control various parameters of monophonic sound generator (frequency, timbre, amplitude and duration).[28] Polyphonic sounds were obtained using multitrack recording technique.
Oramics (1957) controls sounds by graphics on films


Punched paper

  • Barrel or cylinder with pins (since 9th or 14th century) utilized on carillons, music boxes
  • Metal disc with punched holes (late 1800s) — utilized on several music boxes such as Polyphon, Regina, Symphonion, Ariston, Graphonola (early version), etc.

Rotating object with pins or holes

Followings are specifically designed to function primarily as the music sequencers:

Many synthesizers, and by definition all music workstations, groove machines and drum machines, contain their own sequencers.

Hardware sequencers

Mechanical (pre 20c)

Rhythmicon (1930)

Drum machine
(late 1950s–)

Transistorized drum machine (mid-1960s)

Step drum machine (1972–)

Digital drum machine (1980–)

“Page R” on Fairlight (c.1980)

Groove machine (mid-1980s–)

Tracker (1987–)

Beat slicer (1990s–)

Spectrogram editing (1994)

Loop sequencer (1998–)

Note manipulation on audio tracks (2009–)

Visual timeline of rhythm sequencers

In 1980, renewed Fairlight CMI Series II with its sequencer, "Page R", combined step sequencing with sample playback. In 1987, this led to the development of similar software sequencers of this kind, called Trackers, which became popular in the 1980s and 1990s as simple sequencers for creating computer game music, and are yet popular in the demoscene and chiptunes.

Tracker software

In 1975, New England Digital (NED) released ABLE computer (microcomputer)[25] as a dedicated data processing unit for Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer (1973), and based on it, later Synclavier series were developed. The Synclavier I, released in September 1977,[26] was one of the earliest digital music workstation product with multitrack sequencer. Synclavier series evolved throughout the late 1970s–mid-1980s, and they also established integration of digital-audio and music-sequencer, on their Direct-to-Disk option in 1984, and later Tapeless Studio system.

Synclavier I (1977)

Software sequencers

Also in 1977, Roland Corporation released their first microcomputer-based digital sequencer, MC-8 Microcomposer, also called computer music composer by Roland.[23] It equipped keypad to enter note in numeric code, 16KB RAM for maximum 5200 notes (large enough at that time), and polyphony function which allocates multiple pitch CV into single Gate.[24] The earliest known user was Yellow Magic Orchestra in 1978.

In 1971, Electronic Music Studios (EMS) released one of the first digital sequencer products as a module of Synthi 100, and separated products Synthi Sequencer series.[19][20] After then, Oberheim released DS-2 Digital Sequencer in 1974,[21] and Sequential Circuits released Model 800 in 1977 [22]

EMS Sequencer 256 (1971), a branched product of the Synthi 100

Digital sequencers

On the other hand, software sequencers were continuously utilized since the 1950s in the context of computer music, including computer-played music (software sequencer), computer-composed music (music synthesis), and computer sound generation (sound synthesis). In June 1951, the first computer music Colonel Bogey was played on CSIRAC, Australia's first digital computer.[16][17] In 1956, Lejaren Hiller at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign wrote one of the earliest programs for computer music composition on ILLIAC, and collaborated on the first piece, Illiac Suite for String Quartet, with Leonard Issaction.[18] In 1957 Max Mathews at Bell Labs wrote MUSIC, the first widely used program for sound generation, and a 17 second composition was performed by the IBM 704 computer. Subsequently, computer music was mainly researched on the expensive mainframe computers in computer centers, until the 1970s when minicomputers and then microcomputers became available in this field.

CSIRAC played the earliest computer music in 1951

Computer music

The step sequencers played rigid patterns of notes using a grid of (usually) 16 buttons, or steps, each step being 1/16 of a measure. These patterns of notes were then chained together to form longer compositions. Sequencers of this kind are still in use, mostly built into drum machines and grooveboxes. They are monophonic by nature, although some are multi-timbral, meaning that they can control several different sounds but only play one note on each of those sounds.

Electro-mechanical disc sequencer on early drum machine (1959)
Eko ComputeRhythm (1972),[13][14] one of the earliest programmable drum machines
Firstman SQ-01 (1980),[15] one of the earliest step bass machines

Step sequencers

In 1965 Ralph Lundsten had a polyphonic synthesizer with sequencer called Andromatic. built for him by Erkki Kurenniemi.[12]

During the 1940s–1960s, Raymond Scott, an American composer of electronic music, invented various kind of music sequencers for his electric compositions. The "Wall of Sound", once covered on the wall of his studio in New York during the 1940s–1950s, was an electro-mechanical sequencer to produce rhythmic patterns, consisting of stepping relays (used on dial pulse telephone exchange), solenoids, control switches, and tone circuits with 16 individual oscillators.[9] Later, Robert Moog explained it "the whole room would go 'clack - clack - clack', and the sounds would come out all over the place".[10] The Circle Machine, developed in 1959, had dimmer bulbs arranged in a ring, and a rotating arm with photocell scanning over the ring, to generate arbitrary waveform. Also, the rotating speed of arm was controlled via brightness of lights, and as the results, arbitrary rhythms were generated.[11] And relatively well known Clavivox, developed since 1952, was a kind of keyboard synthesizer with sequencer. On its prototype, a theremin manufactured by young Robert Moog was utilized to enable portamento over 3-octave range, and on later version, it was replaced by a pair of photographic film and photocell for controlling the pitch by voltage.[10]

Earliest commercially available analog sequencers (front) on Buchla 100 (1964/1966)[8]
Moog sequencer module (left, probably added after 1968) on Moog Modular (1964)

Analog sequencers

In the 19th century, as the results of player piano and orchestrion using book music / music rolls (piano rolls) with punched holes, etc. These instruments were widely spread as the popular entertainment devices before the inventions of phonograph, radio, and sound film. Amongst of all, especially the punched tape media had been long lived until the mid-20th century: earliest programmable music synthesizers including RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer in 1957, and Siemens Synthesizer in 1959, were also controlled via punch tapes similar to piano rolls.[6][7] Another inventions were came from sound film technology. The drawn sound technique which appeared in the late 1920s, is notable as a precursor of today's intuitive graphical user interfaces. On this technique, notes and various sound parameters were controlled by hand-drawn waves on the films, resembling piano rolls or strip charts on the modern sequencers/DAWs. It was often utilized on early experiments of electronic music, including Variophone developed by Yevgeny Sholpo in 1930, and Oramics designed by Daphne Oram in 1957, etc.


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