World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Naartjie

Article Id: WHEBN0004916754
Reproduction Date:

Title: Naartjie  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Citrus, Mandarin orange
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Naartjie

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Naartjie (clothing retailer).
"Mikan" redirects here. For the basketball player, see George Mikan. For other uses, see Mikan (disambiguation).
Citrus unshiu
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Eudicots
Order: Rosids
Suborder: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. unshiu
Binomial name
Citrus unshiu
(Swingle) Marcow.

Citrus unshiu is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus species, also known as cold hardy mandarin,[1] satsuma mandarin,[1] satsuma orange,[1] Christmas orange, and tangerine.[1] It is probably of Japanese origin and introduced elsewhere.[2][3][4][5][6]

Nomenclature

In Japan, it is known as mikan or formally unshu mikan (温州蜜柑 unshū mikan?). In China, it is known as Wenzhou migan (Chinese: 温州蜜柑; pinyin: Wēnzhōu Mìgān), the Japanese name is a result of the local reading of the same characters used in the Chinese. In both languages, the name meaning "Honey Citrus of Wenzhou", Wenzhou being a city in Zhejiang province, China. It is also often known as "Seedless mandarin" (Chinese: 无核桔; pinyin: wúhé jú).

One of the English names for the fruit, "satsuma", is derived from the former Satsuma Province in Japan, from which these fruits were first exported to the West.

The Afrikaans name naartjie is also used in South African English. It derives originally from the Tamil word nartei meaning citrus. The word has been used in South Africa since 1790, but the first written recorded English use is by Lawrence Green in the Tavern of the Seas, 1947.[7] The "tjie" on the end of naart indicates a diminutive.

Characteristics

Its fruit is sweet and usually seedless, about the size of other mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata), smaller than an orange. One of the distinguishing features of the satsuma is the thin, leathery skin dotted with large and prominent oil glands, which is lightly attached around the fruit, enabling it to be peeled very easily in comparison to other citrus fruits. The satsuma also has particularly delicate flesh, which cannot withstand the effects of careless handling. The uniquely loose skin of the satsuma, however, means that any such bruising and damage to the fruit may not be immediately apparent upon the typical cursory visual inspection associated with assessing the quality of other fruits. In this regard, the satsuma might be categorised as a hit-and-miss citrus fruit; the loose skin particular to the fruit precluding the definitive measurement of its quality by sight and feel alone.

History

The Chinese and Japanese names reference Wenzhou, a city in the Zhejiang Province of China known for its citrus production. However, the satsuma originates from Japan.[2][3][4][5][6] In 1916, a number of Japanese cultivars were introduced to Wenzhou. These, and new cultivars developed from them, now dominate orchards in Wenzhou. The traditional centre of satsuma production in Wenzhou is in the town of Wushan, in the Ouhai District of Wenzhou..

Export to the West

Jesuits brought the fruit from Asia to New Spain. Groves started by Jesuits in the 18th century in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, have continued to the present day.[8]

The fruit became much more common in the United States starting in the late 19th century. In 1876 during the Meiji period, satsumas were brought to the United States from the Satsuma Province in Kyūshū, Japan by a spouse of a member of the U.S. Embassy. While the species originates from Japan, it does not originate from the Satsuma Province in particular. The towns of Satsuma, Alabama; Satsuma, Florida; Satsuma, Texas; and Satsuma, Louisiana were named after this fruit. By 1920 Jackson County in the Florida Panhandle had billed itself as the "Satsuma Capital of the World." However, the commercial industry was wiped out during a very cold period in the late 1930s. It has been planted in colder locations, because of its cold-hardiness and because colder weather will sweeten the fruit. A mature satsuma tree can survive down to –9.5 °C (15 °F) for a few hours. Of the edible citrus varieties, only the kumquat is more cold-hardy. Satsumas rarely have any thorns, an attribute that also makes them popular. They can be grown from seed, which takes about 8 years until the first fruits are produced, or grafted onto other citrus rootstocks, trifoliate orange being one of the most popular.

See also

References

External links

  • The Satsuma Tangerine - University of Florida
  • - Texas Cooperative Extension
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.