World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Natural fiber

Article Id: WHEBN0002831510
Reproduction Date:

Title: Natural fiber  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Alpaca fiber, Cotton, Linen, Animal fiber, Fiber
Collection: Fibers
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Natural fiber

Fibers or fibres (see BP.[1][2]

Contents

  • Sources 1
    • Animal fibers 1.1
  • Industrial usage 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Sources

Natural fibers are made from plant, animal and mineral sources. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin.

Category Description
Seed fiber Fibers collected from seeds or seed cases. e.g. cotton and kapok
Leaf fiber Fibers collected from leaves. e.g., sansevieria, fique, sisal, banana and agave.
Bast fiber Fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of their respective plant. These fibers have higher tensile strength than other fibers. Therefore, these fibers are used for durable yarn, fabric, packaging, and paper. Some examples are flax, jute, kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, rattan, and vine fibers.
Skin fiber
Fruit fiber Fibers are collected from the fruit of the plant, e.g. coconut (coir) fiber.
Stalk fiber Fibers are actually the stalks of the plant. E.g. straws of wheat, rice, barley, and other crops including bamboo and grass. Tree wood is also such a fiber.

The most used plant fibers are cotton, flax and hemp, although sisal, jute, kenaf, bamboo and coconut are also widely used.

Hemp fibers are mainly used for ropes and aerofoils because of their high suppleness and resistance within an aggressive environment. Hemp fibers are, for example, currently used as a seal within the heating and sanitary industries.

Animal fibers

Animal fibers generally comprise proteins such as collagen, keratin and fibroin; examples include silk, sinew, wool, catgut, angora, mohair and alpaca.

  • Animal hair (wool or hairs): Fiber or wool taken from animals or hairy mammals. e.g. sheep's wool, goat hair (cashmere, mohair), alpaca hair, horse hair, etc.
  • Silk fiber: Fiber secreted by glands (often located near the mouth) of insects during the preparation of cocoons.
  • Avian fiber: Fibers from birds, e.g. feathers and feather fiber.

Industrial usage

19th century knowledge weaving flax, hemp, jute, Manila hemp, sisal and vegetable fibers

After World War II, the build-up of synthetic fibers significantly decreased the use of natural fibers. Now, with the increase of oil prices and environmental considerations, there has been a revival of natural fiber use within the textile, building, plastic and automotive industries. This interest is reinforced by the developmental perspectives on the agro-industrial market and local productions, allowing economic development and independence versus imported materials.

France remains the greatest European hemp fiber producer with 50,000 tons yearly (EU 100,000 tons). France also produces the largest range of industrial seeds worldwide. China and Russia are also important producers, but the statistics in that field are not available.

In the industrial domain, the consortium DAIFA group SAS have reached a leading position in Europe in the automotive plastics market.[3] They specialize in injection and thermopress plastics reinforced with natural fibers.

The use of natural fibers at the industrial level improves the environmental sustainability of the parts being constructed, especially within the automotive market. Within the building industry, the interest in natural fibers is mostly economical and technical; natural fibers allow insulation properties higher than current materials.

See also

References

  1. ^ Balter M. (2009). Clothes Make the (Hu) Man. Science,325(5946):1329.doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a PMID 19745126
  2. ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. (2009).30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science, 325(5946):1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404 PMID 19745144 Supporting Online Material
  3. ^ daifa.fr

External links

  • Mundo Material
  • IJSG
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.