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Neuraminic acid

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Title: Neuraminic acid  
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Neuraminic acid

Neuraminic acid
Names
IUPAC names
(4S,5R,6R,7S,8R)-5-amino-4,6,7,8,9-
pentahydroxy-2-oxo-nonanoic acid
Identifiers
 YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  N
 N
ChemSpider  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
MeSH
PubChem
Properties
C9H17NO8
Molar mass 267.233 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: YesY/N?)

Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is a 9-carbon monosaccharide (a nonose), a derivative of a ketononose. Neuraminic acid may be visualized as the product of an aldol-condensation product of pyruvic acid and D-mannosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-mannose). Neuraminic acid does not occur naturally, but many of its derivatives are found widely distributed in animal tissues and in bacteria, especially in glycoproteins and gangliosides. The N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively known as sialic acids, the predominant form in mammalian cells being N-acetylneuraminic acid. The amino group bears either an acetyl or a glycolyl group. The hydroxyl substituents may vary considerably: acetyl, lactyl, methyl, sulfate and phosphate groups have been found.

The name "neuraminic acid" was introduced by German scientist E. Klenk in 1941, in reference to the brain lipids from which it was derived as a cleavage product.[1]

The symbol commonly used for neuraminic acid is Neu, and the residue is typically found with additional chemical modifications in biological systems. As a family, these residues are known as sialic acids. For example, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, Neu5Ac, is typical in human glycoproteins.

Among their many biological functions, these structures are substrates for neuraminidase enzymes which cleave neuraminic acid residues. Human flu viruses have a neuraminidase enzyme, signified in the name "H#N#", where the H refers to an isoform of hemaglutinin and N refers to an isoform of viral neuraminidase.

See also

References

  1. ^ Klenk, E. 1941. Neuraminsäure, das Spaltprodukt eines neuen Gehirnlipoids. Zeitschr. f. Physiol. Chem. 1941; 268:50-58.
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