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New Zealand Labour Party

New Zealand Labour Party
Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa
President Nigel Haworth
Secretary-General Vacant
Leader Andrew Little
Deputy Leader Annette King
Founded 7 July 1916 (1916-07-07)
Headquarters Fraser House,
160-162 Willis St,
Youth wing Young Labour
Membership  (2010) 56,741[1]
Ideology Social democracy
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Progressive Alliance[2]
Colours      Red
House of Representatives
32 / 121
Auckland Local Government[3][4]
29 / 219
Wellington City Council
2 / 14
Christchurch Local Government [5]
20 / 47
Capital & Coast District Health Board
1 / 7
Politics of New Zealand
Political parties

The New Zealand Labour Party or Labour (Māori: Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa or Reipa for short) is a social-democratic[6][7] political party in New Zealand, and one of the two major parties in New Zealand politics.[8] The party was formed in 1916, making it New Zealand's oldest extant political party.

Labour most recently formed a government from 1999 to 2008 with Helen Clark as party leader and Prime Minister. Since the party's defeat in the 2008 general election, Labour has comprised the second-largest (in terms of parliamentary seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament; it functions as the core of the Official Parliamentary Opposition.

Following the 2011 general election, Phil Goff and Annette King stepped down as parliamentary leader and deputy leader respectively. On 13 December 2011, the parliamentary caucus voted David Shearer and Grant Robertson to replace them.[9] Shearer announced his resignation from the role on 22 August 2013.[10] On 15 September 2013 David Cunliffe was confirmed by the party as the new leader of the Labour Party.[11] On 18 November 2014 Andrew Little was confirmed outside of Parliament and in a press conference as the new leader of the Labour Party.[12]


  • Principles 1
  • History 2
    • Origins 2.1
      • Electoral record of constituent parties pre-1916 NZLP 2.1.1
    • Early days 2.2
    • First Labour Government 2.3
    • Second Labour Government 2.4
    • Third Labour Government 2.5
    • Fourth Labour Government 2.6
    • Fifth Labour Government 2.7
    • Electoral results 2.8
  • Auckland local elections 3
  • Affiliated Unions 4
  • Leaders 5
  • Local members 6
  • List of leaders 7
  • List of presidents 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12


According to its 2014 constitution, the Labour Party accepts "democratic socialist principles", including:[13]

  • the people as the democratic source of political authority
  • the management of New Zealand's natural resources for "the benefit of all, including future generations"
  • "equal access to all social, economic, cultural, political and legal spheres, regardless of wealth or social position"
  • co-operation as the main governing factor in economic relations, with a view to the increase and just distribution of wealth
  • universal rights to dignity, self-respect and the opportunity to work
  • the right to wealth and property, subject to the provisos of regarding people as always more important than property and the obligations of the state to ensure a just distribution of wealth
  • Te Tiriti o Waitangi/The Treaty of Waitangi as the founding document of New Zealand, and its honouring in the Party, government, society and the whanau
  • the promotion of peace and social justice throughout the world by international co-operation and mutual respect
  • equality in human rights regardless of race, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, religious faith, political belief or disability


The Labour Party was established on 7 July 1916 in Wellington,[14] bringing together socialist groups advocating proportional representation and "the Recall" of Members of Parliament, as well as the nationalisation of production and of exchange. Its origins lie in the British working class movement, heavily influenced by Australian radicalism and events such as the Waihi miners' strike. It is the oldest surviving New Zealand political party. Despite its Wellington origins, the West Coast town of Blackball is often regarded as the birthplace of the party, as it was the location of the founding of one of the main political organisations which became part of the nascent Labour Party.


The Labour Party was an amalgamation of a number of early groups, the oldest of which was founded in 1901. The process of unifying these diverse groups into a single party was difficult, with tensions between different factions running strong.[15]

At the turn of the century, the radical side of New Zealand working class politics was represented by the Socialist Party, founded in 1901. The more moderate leftists were generally supporters of the Liberal Party.[16] In 1905, a group of working class politicians who were dissatisfied with the Liberal approach established the Independent Political Labour League,[17] which managed to win a seat in Parliament in the 1908 election.[18][19] This established the basic dividing line in New Zealand's left-wing politics – the Socialists tended to be revolutionary and militant, while the moderates focused instead on progressive reform.

In 1910, the Independent Political Labour League was relaunched as an organisation called the United Labour Party was born.

Soon afterwards, the labour movement was hit by the Waihi miners' strike, a major industrial disturbance prompted by radicals in the union movement. The movement was split between supporting and opposing the radicals, and in the end, the conservative government of William Massey suppressed the strike by force. In the strike's aftermath, there was a major drive to end the divisions in the movement and establish a united front – another Unity Conference was called, and this time the Socialists attended. The resulting group was named the Social Democratic Party.

Not all members of the United Labour Party accepted the new organisation, however, and some continued on under their own banner. Gradually, however, the differences between the Social Democrats and the ULP Remnant broke down, and in 1916, yet another gathering was held. This time, all major factions of the labour movement agreed to unite, establishing the modern Labour Party.

Electoral record of constituent parties pre-1916 NZLP

Term Electorate Party Elected MPs
1908–1910 17th Wellington East Ind. Labour League David McLaren
1910–1911 Changed allegiance to: Labour (original)
1911–1912 18th Wellington South Labour (original) Alfred Hindmarsh
1912–1914 Changed allegiance to: United Labour
1914–1916 19th Wellington South United Labour
1911–1914 18th Grey Lynn Labour (original) John Payne
1914–1916 19th Grey Lynn Independent Labour
1916 Changed allegiance to: Independent
1911–1914 18th Otaki Labour (original) John Robertson
1911–1912 18th Wanganui Independent Bill Veitch
1912–1914 Changed allegiance to: United Labour
1914–1916 19th Wanganui United Labour
1913–1914 18th Grey Social Democrat Paddy Webb
1914–1916 19th Grey Social Democrat
1913–1914 18th Lyttelton Social Democrat James McCombs
1914–1916 19th Lyttelton Social Democrat
1914–1916 19th Dunedin North United Labour Andrew Walker

Early days

Almost immediately, the new Labour Party became involved in the acrimonious debate about conscription, which arose during World War I – the Labour Party strongly opposed conscription,[20] several leaders were jailed and expelled from Parliament for their stand against the war: Peter Fraser, Harry Holland, Bob Semple and Paddy Webb. The loss of leadership threatened to seriously destabilise the party, but the party survived. Fraser, Semple and Webb supported conscription in World War II.

In its first real electoral test as a united party, the 1919 election, Labour won eight seats. This compared with 47 for the governing Reform Party and 21 for the Liberal Party.

Although Labour had split with its more militant faction, (who went on to form various socialist parties) it maintained what were at the time radical socialist policies. Labour's 'Usehold' policy on land was in essence the replacement of freehold tenure by a system of perpetual lease from the State, with all land transfer conducted through the State(the full nationalisation of farmland). This policy was unpopular with voters and was dropped by Labour, along with other more radical policies, throughout the 1920s.[21]

In the 1922 election, Labour more than doubled its number of seats, winning seventeen. In the 1925 election, it declined somewhat, but had the consolation of soon overtaking the Liberals as the second largest party. Harry Holland became the official Leader of the Opposition on 16 June 1926, after the Eden by-election on 15 April elected Rex Mason (Labour) to replace James Parr (Reform) who had resigned. After the 1928 election, however, the party was left in an advantageous position – the Reform Party and the new United Party (a revival of the Liberals) were tied on 27 seats each, and neither could govern without Labour support. Labour chose to back United, the party closest to its own views – this put an end to five terms of Reform Party government.

The rigours of the Great Depression brought Labour considerable popularity, but also caused tension between Labour and the United Party. In 1931, United passed a number of economic measures which Labour deemed hostile to workers, and the agreement between the two parties collapsed. United then formed a coalition government with Reform, making Labour the Opposition. The coalition retained power in the 1931 election, but gradually, the public became highly dissatisfied with its failure to resolve the country's economic problems. In the 1935 election, the Labour Party won a massive victory, gaining 53 seats to the coalition's 19.

Several of the early Labour Party stalwarts were Australian-born: Alfred Hindmarsh, Harry Holland, Michael Joseph Savage, Bob Semple, Paddy Webb, Bill Parry and later Clarence Skinner, Mabel Howard and Hugh Watt.

First Labour Government

social welfare system and the creation of the state housing scheme. Labour also pursued an alliance with the Māori Ratana movement. Savage himself was highly popular with the working classes, and his portrait could be found on the walls of many houses around the country.

The opposition, meanwhile, attacked the Labour Party's more left-wing policies, and accused it of undermining free enterprise and hard work. The year after Labour's first win, the Reform Party and the United Party took their coalition to the next step, agreeing to merge with each other. The combined organisation was named the National Party, and would be Labour's main rival in future years.

Labour also faced opposition from within its ranks. While the Labour Party had been explicitly socialist at its inception, it had been gradually drifting away from its earlier radicalism. The death of the party's first leader, the "doctrinaire" Harry Holland, had marked a significant turning point in the party's history. Some within the party, however, were displeased about the changing focus of the party, most notably John A. Lee. Lee, whose views were a mixture of socialism and social credit theory, emerged as a vocal critic of the party's leadership, accusing it of behaving autocratically and of betraying the party's rank and file. After a long and bitter dispute, Lee was expelled from the party, establishing the breakaway Democratic Labour Party.

Savage died in 1940, and was replaced by Peter Fraser, who became Labour's longest-serving Prime Minister. Fraser is best known as New Zealand's leader for most of World War II. In the post-war period, however, ongoing shortages and industrial problems cost Labour considerable popularity, and the National Party, under Sidney Holland, gained ground. Finally, in the 1949 elections, Labour was defeated.

Fraser died shortly afterwards, and was replaced by Walter Nash, the long-serving Minister of Finance. It was to be some time before Labour would return to power, however – Nash lacked the charisma of his predecessors, and National won considerable support for opposing the "industrial anarchy" of the 1951 waterfront dispute. In the 1957 election, however, Labour won the narrowest of victories, and returned to office.

Second Labour Government

Nash, Labour's third prime minister, took office in late 1957. Upon coming to power, Labour decided that drastic measures were needed to address balance of payments concerns. This resulted in the (in)famous "Black Budget" of Arnold Nordmeyer, the new Minister of Finance. The budget raised taxes, particularly on alcohol and cigarettes, and was highly unpopular. It is widely thought to have doomed the party to defeat. In the 1960 election, the National Party was indeed victorious.

The elderly Nash retired in 1963, suffering from ill health. He was replaced by Nordmeyer, but the taint of the "Black Budget" ensured that Nordmeyer did not have any appreciable success in reversing the party's fortunes. In 1965, the leadership was assumed by the younger Norman Kirk, who many believed would revitalise the party. Labour was defeated again in the next two elections, but in the 1972 election, the party gained a significant victory.

Third Labour Government

New Zealand Labour 1970s – 1980s "L" logo.

Kirk proved to be an energetic Prime Minister, and introduced a number of new policies. Particularly noteworthy were his foreign policy stances, which included strong criticism of nuclear weapons testing and of South Africa's apartheid system. Kirk's health was poor, however, and was worsened by his refusal to slow the pace of his work. In 1974, Kirk was taken ill and died. He was replaced by Bill Rowling, who did not have the same charismatic appeal – in the 1975 election, Labour was defeated by National, which was led by Robert Muldoon.[22]

Rowling remained leader of the Labour Party for some time after his defeat. In the 1978 election and the 1981 election, Labour won a larger share of the vote than National, but failed to win an equivalent number of seats. Rowling himself was compared unfavourably to Muldoon, and did not cope well with Muldoon's aggressive style. Rowling was eventually replaced by David Lange, who was seen as more able to counter Muldoon's attacks. In the 1984 election, Labour was victorious.

Fourth Labour Government

When the fourth Labour government came into power led by David Lange they uncovered a fiscal crisis that had been largely hidden by the outgoing National government.[23] Government debt was skyrocketing, due largely to the costs of borrowing to maintain a fixed exchange rate. When the result of the election became clear Lange asked Muldoon to devalue the dollar, which he refused to do, resulting in a constitutional crisis and precipitating some of the changes in the Constitution Act 1986.

Throughout the first term of the fourth Labour government, the cabinet remained largely unified behind the radical financial, economic and policy reforms that were enacted.[24] In 1987 Labour won a first-past-the-post election for the last time (the mixed member proportional system was introduced in 1996). It was not until this second term, which increased Labour's majority and was won mostly on the back of its anti-nuclear stance, that considerable divisions over economic policy began to arise within the cabinet.[25] The Minister of Finance, Roger Douglas, was a supporter of free market theories, and sought to implement sweeping reforms ("Rogernomics") to the economy and tax system. Others within the party, however, saw this as a betrayal of the party's left-wing roots. The party was also criticised by the Council of Trade Unions.

Opposition to Douglas's reforms remained strong – eventually, a Labour MP, Jim Anderton, left to establish the NewLabour Party,[25] eventually forming the basis of the left-wing Alliance. At the same time, Douglas was pressing onwards, proposing a flat tax rate. Finally, David Lange forced Douglas to resign, and shortly afterwards resigned himself.

Lange was replaced by Geoffrey Palmer. Palmer, however, was unable to counter widespread discontent among Labour's traditional supporters, and a few months before the 1990 election, Palmer was replaced by Mike Moore. The Labour Party suffered its worst defeat since it first took office in 1935.

Moore was eventually replaced by Helen Clark, who led the party in opposition to the National Party government of Jim Bolger. During the period in opposition, the party made a measured repudiation of Rogernomics, although it has never returned to its original strong left-wing stance (it defines itself today as "centre-left" rather than simply "left"). When the 1996 election, the first conducted under the MMP electoral system, gave the balance of power to the centrist New Zealand First party, many believed that Labour would return to power, but in the end New Zealand First allied itself with the National Party. This coalition was unstable, however, and eventually collapsed, leaving the National Party to govern as a minority government. In the 1999 election, Labour returned to power at the head of a coalition government.

Major pieces of legislation:

  • Treaty of Waitangi Amendment Act 1985 – extended the scope of the Waitangi Tribunal to retrospective claims dating back to the Treaty
  • Constitution Act 1986 – codified important constitutional conventions
  • Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986 – legalised homosexual relations
  • Immigration Act 1986 – liberalised immigration, particularly skilled migration, into NZ.
  • Māori Language Act 1987 – made Te Reo Māori an official language.
  • State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986 – established the first SOEs
  • State Sector Act 1988 – made the civil service more business-like with Chief Executives instead of Permanent Secretaries
  • Public Finance Act 1989 – changed the reporting and accountability for government expenditure
  • Reserve Bank Act 1989 – enabled the Reserve Bank to autonomously pursue an inflation target
  • New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 – enumerated civil, political and criminal procedure rights

Other initiatives include:

Fifth Labour Government

Recent Labour party Logo

After the 1999 election, a coalition government of Labour and the Alliance took power, with Helen Clark as Prime Minister. This government, while undertaking a number of reforms, was not particularly revolutionary when compared to previous Labour governments, and maintained a high level of popularity. The Alliance, however, fell in popularity and split internally, the latter factor being one of the reasons cited by Helen Clark for her calling the 2002 election several months early, which Labour comfortably won.

In early 2004, the Labour Party came under attack for its policies on the foreshore and seabed controversy. There were significant internal tensions within the party, eventually culminating in the resignation of junior minister Tariana Turia and her establishment of the new Māori Party.

Following the 2005 general election, Labour formed a coalition with the Progressive Party (a faction of the old Alliance), and entered into complex confidence and supply agreements with the centrist United Future and New Zealand First parties, which gave both parties' leaders a Ministerial portfolio, while remaining outside the Cabinet. A limited support agreement was also made with the Green party, whereby certain policy concessions were to be made to the Greens in return for abstention on confidence and supply votes. Labour lost power when it was defeated by the National Party in the 2008 general election.

Electoral results

Election # of votes % of vote # of seats
1919 131,402 24.2
8 / 80
1922 150,448 23.70
17 / 80
1925 184,650 27.20
12 / 80
1928 198,092 26.19
19 / 80
Coalition with United
1931 244,881 34.27
24 / 80
1935 434,368 46.17
53 / 80
Two-party era
1938 528,290 55.82
53 / 80
1943 522,189 47.6
45 / 80
1946 536,994 51.28
42 / 80
1949 506,073 47.16
34 / 80
1951 473,146 42.7
30 / 80
1954 481,631 44.25
35 / 80
1957 531,740 52.45
41 / 80
1960 420,084 41.82
34 / 80
1963 383,205 38.71
35 / 80
1966 382,756 38.53
35 / 80
1969 464,346 43.16
39 / 84
1972 677,669 48.37
55 / 87
1975 634,453 39.56
32 / 87
1978 691,076 40.41
40 / 92
1981 702,630 39.01
43 / 91
1984 829,154 42.98
56 / 95
1987 878,448 47.96
57 / 97
1990 640,915 35.14
29 / 97
1993 666,759 34.68
45 / 99
Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) era
1996 584,159 28.19
37 / 120
1999 800,199 38.74
49 / 120
Government (coalition)
2002 838,219 41.26
52 / 120
2005 935,319 41.10
50 / 121
2008 796,880 33.99
43 / 122
2011 614,936 27.48
34 / 121
2014 604,534 25.13
32 / 121
Labour did not stand candidates in every electorate until 1946, when it stood candidates in all 80 electorates. According to the National Executive reports,[26] the number of official candidates in 1919 is uncertain (53 or possibly 46). The number of candidates was 41, 1922; 56, 1925; 55, 1928; 53, 1931; 70, 1935; 78, 1938 and 77, 1943. Labour did not run against independent candidates who voted with Labour; Harry Atmore in Nelson and David McDougall in Mataura, Southland. Labour did not run candidates against the two Country Party candidates in 1935; but did in 1938, when both candidates were defeated.

Auckland local elections

Election Candidates nominated Seats won
Local Board Candidates Council Candidates Health Board Candidates Licensing trust Candidates Local Board Seats Council Seats Health Board Seats Licensing trust Seats
2010 17/149 3/20 0/21 6/32
12 / 149
2 / 20
0 / 21
6 / 32
2013 27/149 4/20 2/21 7/31
20 / 149
2 / 20
1 / 21
6 / 31

Affiliated Unions

The Labour Party was founded as the political arm of the trade union movement. While the formal ties between unions and the party have dwindled, there are currently seven unions that are directly affiliated to the party and pay affiliation fees as well as receiving a percentage of the vote in party leadership elections. These unions are:

In addition, the president of the New Zealand Council of Trade Unions continues to speak at the Labour Party Annual Conference.[27]


Helen Clark is the longest serving leader of the Labour Party. While some dispute exists as to when Harry Holland officially became leader, by 26 October 2008 Clark had passed his longest possible leadership term.[28] Following the loss to the National Party in 8 November 2008 elections, Helen Clark stood down as leader of the Labour Party,[29] and was succeeded by Phil Goff (2008–2011),[10] David Shearer (2011–2013),[30] David Cunliffe (2013–2014),[11] and Andrew Little (2014–present).

Local members

Labour has a few prominent local councillors who ran under the banner of the Labour Party. In Auckland there is Alf Filipaina of the Manukau ward and Richard Northey (a former MP) of the Maungakiekie-Tamaki ward. Mayor Len Brown, despite having a lifelong membership to Labour, ran as an independent in the Auckland mayoral election, 2010. In Hamilton, former MP for Hamilton West Martin Gallagher was elected to council in 2010.

In New Plymouth former MP Harry Duynhoven served as mayor from 2010-2013 where upon he was voted out of office. Lianne Dalziel was elected to be Mayor of Christchurch in the 2013 local body elections succeeding Sir Bob Parker, and former Rotorua electorate then list MP Steve Chadwick, was elected as Mayor of Rotorua in the 2013 elections, Both Dalziel and Chadwick ran however as independents.

In Christchurch Labour maintains an umbrella including community independents called The People's Choice (formerly Christchurch 2021). Labour candidates stand as 'The People's Choice (Labour)' and currently hold a number of community board seats, six council seats, and several community board chairmanships.

Wellington has two Labour Party councillors: Paul Eagle - Southern Ward councillor and Mark Peck - former Member of Parliament for Invercargill and Lambton Ward councillor. There are many more local and regional councillors who are Labour Party members, but do not run as endorsed candidates of the party.

There are many others councillors in almost all areas of New Zealand that are members or have previously had connections with the Labour Party, but have instead contested local elections as independents.

List of leaders

The following is a complete list of Labour Party leaders:

      Labour       Reform       United       National
PM: Prime Minister
LO: Leader of the Opposition
†: Died in office

No. Leader Portrait Term of Office Position Prime Minister
1 Harry Holland 1919 8 October 1933† Massey
LO 1926–1928 Coates
Junior coalition partner
LO 1931–1933 Forbes
2 Michael Joseph Savage 12 October 1933 27 March 1940† LO 1933–1935
PM 1935–1940 Savage
3 Peter Fraser 1 April 1940 12 December 1950† PM 1940–1949 Fraser
LO 1949–1950 Holland
4 Walter Nash December 1950 31 March 1963 LO 1951–1957
PM 1957–1960 Nash
LO 1960–1963 Holyoake
5 Arnold Nordmeyer 1 April 1963 16 December 1965 LO 1963–1965
6 Norman Kirk 16 December 1965 31 August 1974† LO 1965–1972
PM 1972–1974 Kirk
7 Bill Rowling 6 September 1974 3 February 1983 PM 1974–1975 Rowling
LO 1975–1983 Muldoon
8 David Lange 3 February 1983 8 August 1989 LO 1983–1984
PM 1984–1989 Lange
9 Geoffrey Palmer 8 August 1989 4 September 1990 PM 1989–1990 Palmer
10 Mike Moore 4 September 1990 1 December 1993 PM 1990 Moore
LO 1990–1993 Bolger
11 Helen Clark 1 December 1993 19 November 2008 LO 1993–1999
PM 1999–2008 Clark
12 Phil Goff 19 November 2008 13 December 2011 LO 2008–2011 Key
13 David Shearer 13 December 2011 15 September 2013 LO 2011–2013
14 David Cunliffe 15 September 2013 30 September 2014 LO 2013–2014
15 Andrew Little 18 November 2014 incumbent LO 2014–present

List of presidents

The following is a complete list of Labour Party presidents:[31]

No. President Term
1 James McCombs 1916–1917[32]
2 Andrew Walker 1917–1918 [33]
3 Tom Paul 1918–1920[34]
4 Peter Fraser 1920–1921
5 Frederick Cooke 1921–1922
6 Tom Brindle 1922–1926
7 Bob Semple 1926–1928
8 John Archer 1928–1929
9 Jim Thorn 1929–1931[35]
10 Rex Mason 1931–1932
11 Bill Jordan 1932–1933
12 Frank Langstone 1933–1934
13 Tim Armstrong 1934–1935
14 Walter Nash 1935–1936
15 Clyde Carr 1936–1937
16 James Roberts 1937–1950[36]
17 Arnold Nordmeyer 1950–1955
18 Michael Moohan 1955–1960
19 Martyn Finlay 1960–1964
20 Norman Kirk 1964–1969
21 Bill Rowling 1969–1972
22 Charles Bennett 1972–1976[37]
23 Arthur Faulkner 1976–1978
24 Jim Anderton 1979–1984
25 Margaret Wilson 1984–1987
26 Ruth Dyson 1988–1993
27 Maryan Street 1993–1995
28 Michael Hirschfeld 1995–1999
29 Bob Harvey 1999–2000
30 Mike Williams 2000–2009
31 Andrew Little 2009–2011
32 Moira Coatsworth 2011–2015
33 Nigel Haworth 2015–present

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Miller 2005, pp. 32–33.
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 13.
  16. ^ Gustafson 1980, pp. 13f.
  17. ^ Gustafson 1980, pp. 17f.
  18. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 216.
  19. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 19.
  20. ^ Miller 2005, p. 30.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Bassett 1976, p. ?.
  23. ^ Miller 2005, pp. 38–39.
  24. ^ Holland-Boston 1988, p. ?.
  25. ^ a b Miller 2005, p. 40.
  26. ^ Brown 1962, p. 225.
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ Brown 1962, p. 224.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Gustafson 1980, pp. 168–169.
  34. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 164.
  35. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 168.
  36. ^
  37. ^


  • (with Biographical appendix)

External links

  • Official website
  • Official web site for City Vision – the Auckland Local Government Group that includes Labour candidates
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