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Nigel Gresley

Herbert Nigel Gresley
Born (1876-06-19)19 June 1876
Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 5 April 1941(1941-04-05) (aged 64)
Watton-at-Stone, Hertfordshire, England
Nationality British
Engineering career
Engineering discipline Locomotive engineer
Employer(s) Great Northern Railway,
London and North Eastern Railway

Sir Herbert Nigel Gresley (19 June 1876 – 5 April 1941)[1] was one of Britain's most famous steam locomotive engineers, who rose to become Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER). He was the designer of some of the most famous steam locomotives in Britain, including the LNER Class A1 and LNER Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific engines. An A1 pacific, Flying Scotsman, was the first steam locomotive officially recorded over 100 mph in passenger service, and an A4, number 4468 Mallard, still holds the record for being the fastest steam locomotive in the world (126 mph).

Gresley's engines were considered elegant, both aesthetically and mechanically. His invention of a three-cylinder design with only two sets of Walschaerts valve gear, the Gresley conjugated valve gear, produced smooth running and power at lower cost than would have been achieved with a more conventional three sets of Walschaerts gear.

No. 4472 Flying Scotsman


  • Biography 1
  • Memorials 2
  • Innovations 3
  • Locomotives designed by Gresley 4
    • GNR 4.1
    • LNER 4.2
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7


Salisbury Hall, Gresley's home during the 1930s
Memorial plaque to Gresley's achievements displayed in the main hall of Edinburgh's Waverley railway station

Gresley was born in Edinburgh during his mother's visit there to see a gynaecologist,[2] but was raised in Netherseal, Derbyshire, a member of the cadet branch of a family long seated at Gresley, Derbyshire. After attending school in Sussex and at Marlborough College, Gresley served his apprenticeship at the Crewe works of the London and North Western Railway, afterwards becoming a pupil under John Aspinall at Horwich of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR). After several minor appointments with the L&YR he was made Outdoor Assistant in the Carriage and Wagon Department in 1901; in 1902 he was appointed Assistant Works Manager at Newton Heath depot, and Works Manager the following year.

This rapid rise in his career was maintained for, in 1904, he became Assistant Superintendent of the Carriage and Wagon Department of the L&YR. A year later, he moved to the Great Northern Railway (GNR) as Carriage and Wagon Superintendent. He succeeded Henry A. Ivatt as CME of the GNR on 1 October 1911. At the 1923 Grouping, he was appointed CME of the newly formed LNER (the post had originally been offered to the ageing John G. Robinson; Robinson declined and suggested the much younger Gresley). In 1936, Gresley was awarded an honorary DSc by Manchester University and a knighthood by King Edward VIII;[3] also in that year he presided over the IMechE.

During the 1930s, Sir Nigel Gresley lived at Salisbury Hall, near St. Albans in Hertfordshire. Gresley developed an interest in breeding wild birds and ducks in the moat; intriguingly, among the species were Mallard ducks.[4] The Hall still exists today as a private residence and is adjacent to the de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre, with its links to the design of the famous Mosquito aircraft during World War II.

In 1936, Gresley designed the 1,500V DC locomotives for the proposed electrification of the Woodhead Line between Manchester and Sheffield. The Second World War forced the postponement of the project, which was completed in the early 1950s.

Gresley died after a short illness on 5 April 1941 and was buried in St Peter's Church, Netherseal, Derbyshire.

He was succeeded as the LNER CME by Edward Thompson.


A memorial plaque to Gresley's achievements was unveiled at Edinburgh Waverley railway station in 2001. It was created by the Gresley Society and incorporates line drawings of his "Flying Scotsman" and "Mallard" locomotives.

LNER Class A4 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley is named after its designer.


  • Derived valve motion for 3-cylinder steam locomotives; Gresley Conjugated Valve Gear.
  • The largest passenger steam locomotive in the UK, the P2 2-8-2.
  • The largest steam locomotive in the UK, the U1 2-8-0+0-8-2 Garratt.
  • The 'locomotive that won the war', the V2 2-6-2.
  • The A3 'Flying Scotsman' 4-6-2.
  • The fastest steam locomotive in the world, the A4 'Mallard' 4-6-2 (126.3 mph).
  • Another A4, 'Silver Link', previously holding the world speed record for steam locomotives (112 mph)
  • The experimental high-pressure LNER Class W1 'hush-hush' 4-6-4 locomotive
  • Silver Jubilee train
  • The articulated railway carriage, first used with some conversions of East Coast Joint Stock (ECJS) carriages in 1907, soon followed by conversions of GNR carriages; new articulated carriages being built for the GNR from 1911.[5]
  • The corridor tender to allow longer non-stop running

Locomotives designed by Gresley

LNER Class A4 4488 Union of South Africa, a classic Gresley design, beautifully restored.


See: Locomotives of the Great Northern Railway


See: Locomotives of the London and North Eastern Railway


  1. ^ biography accessed 15 November 2007
  2. ^ Jones, Robin (2013). Mallard 75. Horncastle: Morton's Media Group Ltd. p. 14.  
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34307. p. 4669. 21 July 1936. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  4. ^ Don Hale, Mallard, Aurum Press, 2005, ISBN 1-85410-939-1 pages 51–52
  5. ^ Harris, Michael (1995). Great Northern Railway and East Coast Joint Stock Carriages from 1905. Headington: Oakwood Press. pp. 17,101,107.  

Further reading

  • Hughes, Geoffrey (2001). Sir Nigel Gresley: The Engineer and his Family. The Oakwood Library of Railway History. Usk: Oakwood Press.  

External links

  • Comprehensive biography
Business positions
Preceded by
Henry Ivatt
Chief Mechanical Engineer of the
Great Northern Railway

Succeeded by
Preceded by
Chief Mechanical Engineer of the
London and North Eastern Railway

Succeeded by
Edward Thompson
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Major-General Alexander Elliott Davidson
President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Succeeded by
Sir John Thornycroft
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