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Olympic Games scandals and controversies

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Title: Olympic Games scandals and controversies  
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Subject: Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, Lists of Olympic medalists, List of Olympic torch relays, National Olympic Committee
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Olympic Games scandals and controversies

The Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event. During its history, both the Summer and Winter Games were a subject of many scandals, controversies, and illegal drug uses.

Some states have boycotted the Games on various occasions, often as a sign of protest against the International Olympic Committee or contemporary politics of other participants. After both World Wars, the losing countries were not invited. Other controversies include decisions by referees and even gestures made by athletes.

Summer Olympics

1908 Summer Olympics

  • In the 400 metres, American winner John Carpenter, was disqualified for blocking British athlete Wyndham Halswelle in a maneuver that was legal under U.S. rules but prohibited by the British rules under which the race was run. As a result of the disqualification, a second final race was ordered. Halswelle was to face the other two finalists William Robbins and John Taylor, but both were from the United States and decided not to contest the repeat of the final to protest the judges' decision. Halswelle was thus the only medallist in the 400 metres. It was the only walkover victory in Olympic history. Taylor later ran on the Gold medal winning U.S. team for the now-defunct Medley Relay, becoming the first African American medalist.[2]

1912 Summer Olympics

  • American athlete [3]

1916 Summer Olympics

1920 Summer Olympics

1924 Summer Olympics

  • Germany was again not invited to the Games.[5]

1932 Summer Olympics

  • Nine-time Finnish Olympic gold medalist Paavo Nurmi was found to be a professional athlete and barred from running in the Games. The main conductors of the ban were Swedish officials, especially Sigfrid Edström, who claimed that Nurmi had received too much money for his travel expenses. However, Nurmi did travel to Los Angeles and kept training at the Olympic Village. Despite pleas from all the entrants of the marathon, he was not allowed to compete at the Games. This incident, in part, led to Finland refusing to participate in the traditional Finland-Sweden athletics international event until 1939.
  • After winning the silver in equestrian dressage, Swedish equestrian Bertil Sandström was demoted to last for clicking to his horse to win encouragement. He asserted that it was a creaking saddle making the sounds.

1936 Summer Olympics

Adolf Hitler arriving at the opening ceremony of the controversial 1936 Berlin Games
Jesse Owens on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics
  • In 1931 the IOC selected the German capital city [6][7]
  • The People's Olympiad. The event did not take place however; just as the Games were about to begin the Spanish Civil War broke out and the People's Olympiad was cancelled.
  • In the United States, there was considerable debate about boycotting the Games.[8] A leading advocate of a boycott was U.S. athlete Ernest Lee Jahncke, the son of a German immigrant, who was an IOC member. He was opposed by United States Olympic Committee president Avery Brundage and was eventually expelled from the IOC for encouraging athletes to boycott the Berlin Games.
  • International concern surrounded the ruling German National Socialists' ideology of racial superiority and its application at an international event such as the Olympics.[7][9] In 1934 Avery Brundage undertook a visit to Germany to investigate the treatment of Jews. When he returned, he reported, "I was given positive assurance in writing ... that there will be no discrimination against Jews. You can't ask more than that and I think the guarantee will be fulfilled."[10] In the event, a number of record-holding German athletes were excluded from competing at Berlin for being racially undesirable, including Lilli Henoch,[11] Gretel Bergmann[12][13] and Wolfgang Fürstner.[14] The only Jewish athlete to compete on the German team was fencer Helene Mayer.
  • United States sprinters Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman, the only two Jewish athletes on the U.S. Olympic team, were pulled from the 4 × 100 relay team on the day of the competition, leading to accusations of anti-Semitism on the part of the United States Olympic Committee.
  • Hitler's decision not to shake hands with USA long-jump medal winner Jesse Owens has been widely interpreted as a snub of an African American; however some commentators have noted that the German Chancellor missed all medal presentations after the first day as he only wished to shake hands with German victors.[15][16] Owens himself was reported to have been magnanimous when he mentioned Hitler.[17] After the Games however, Owens was not personally honoured by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[18]
  • In one of the football quarter-finals, Peru beat Austria 4–2 but Austria went through in very controversial circumstances. As a sign of protest the complete Olympic delegations of Peru and Colombia left Germany. See Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics.
  • French and Canadian Olympians gave what appeared to be the Nazi salute at the opening ceremony, although they may have been performing the Olympic salute, which is similar, as both are based on the Roman salute.

1940 and 1944 Summer Olympics

  • The 1940 Summer Olympics were scheduled to be held in Tokyo, Japan, but were cancelled due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War. The government of Japan had abandoned its support for the 1940 Games in July 1938.[20] The IOC then awarded the Games to Helsinki, Finland, the runner-up in the original bidding process, but the Games were not held due to the Winter War. Ultimately, the Olympic Games were suspended indefinitely following the outbreak of World War II and did not resume until the London Games of 1948.

1948 Summer Olympics

  • The two major Axis powers of World War II, Germany and Japan, were suspended from the Olympics.[1] The suspensions would be lifted in 1956.
  • The Soviet Union was invited but chose not to send any athletes.

1956 Summer Olympics

  • Seven countries boycotted the Games for three different reasons. Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon announced that they would not participate in response to the Suez Crisis when Egypt was invaded by Israel, the United Kingdom, and France after Egypt nationalized the Suez canal.[1] The Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland withdrew to protest the Soviet Union's invasion of Hungary during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Soviet presence at the Games.[1] Less than two weeks before the opening ceremony, the People's Republic of China also chose to boycott the event, protesting the Republic of China (Taiwan) being allowed to compete (under the name "Formosa").
  • The political frustrations between the Soviet Union and Hungary boiled over at the games themselves when the two men's water polo teams met for the semi-final. The players became increasingly violent towards one another as the game progressed, while many Hungarian spectators were prevented from rioting only by the sudden appearance of the police.[21] The match became known as the Blood in the Water match.[22][23]

1964 Summer Olympics

1968 Summer Olympics

  • 1968 Olympics Black Power salute: Tommie Smith and John Carlos, two black athletes who finished the 200 meter race first and third respectively, performed the "Power to the People" salute during the national anthem of the United States.
  • Věra Čáslavská, in protest to the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia and the controversial decision by the judges on the Balance Beam and Floor, turned her head down and away from the Soviet flag whilst the anthem played during the medal ceremony. She returned home as a heroine of the Czechoslovak people, but was made an outcast by the Soviet dominated government.
  • Students in Mexico City tried to make use of the media attention for their country to protest the authoritarian Mexican government. The government reacted with violence, culminating in the Tlatelolco Massacre ten days before the Games began and more than two thousand protesters were shot at by government forces.

1972 Summer Olympics

  • The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September which had ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. Eleven athletes, coaches and judges were murdered by the terrorists.
  • Rhodesia was banned from participating in the Olympics as the result of a 36 to 31 vote by the IOC held four days before the opening ceremonies. African countries had threatened to boycott the Munich games had the white minority ruled regime been permitted to send a team. The ban occurred over the objections of IOC president Avery Brundage who, in his speech following the Munich massacre, controversially compared the anti-Rhodesia campaign to the terrorist attack on the Olympic village.[24] (see Rhodesia at the Olympics)
  • In the controversial gold medal basketball game, the USA Olympic Basketball team battled for the gold medal for the last few seconds against the team from the Soviet Union. With three seconds left and the US team leading the Soviets by one point, a Soviet attempt to run an inbounds play was aborted when their coaching staff interrupted game officials to argue that the team was due a timeout. Another play was run, which failed to score and sent the U.S. team into jubilant celebration over their apparent victory. But the play was ruled invalid because the game clock had not been properly reset when the ball was inbounded. The clock was reset and a third play was run, on which the USSR scored a layup to win, 51–50. Infuriated by the actions of the officials, the U.S. team refused to accept the silver medals.[25]
  • In the men's field hockey final Michael Krause's goal in the 60th minute gave the host West Germans a 1–0 victory in the final over the defending champion Pakistan. Pakistan's players complained about some of the umpiring and disagreed that Krause's goal was good. After the game, Pakistani fans ran onto the field in rage; some players and fans dumped water on Belgium's Rene Frank, then the head of the sport's international governing body. During the medals ceremony, the players staged their protest, some of them turning their backs to the West German flag. Reports also mention that the Pakistani players handled their silver medals disrespectfully. According to the story in The Washington Post, the team's manager, G.R. Chaudhry, said that his team thought the outcome had been "pre-planned" by the officials, Horacio Servetto of Argentina and Richard Jewell of Australia.

1976 Summer Olympics

Countries boycotting the 1976 (yellow), 1980 (blue) and 1984 (red) Summer Olympics
  • Canada initially refused to allow the Republic of China's team into the country as Canada did not recognise Taiwan as a nation. Canada's decision was in violation of its agreement with the IOC to allow all recognised teams. Canada then agreed to allow the Taiwanese athletes into the country but only if they did not compete under the name or flag of the Republic of China. This led to protests and a threatened boycott by other countries including the US but came to naught after the IOC acquiesced to the Canadian demand which, in turn, led to the Republic of China's boycott of the games. The People's Republic of China also continued its boycott over the failure of the IOC to recognize its team as the sole representative of China.[31]
  • The various boycotts resulted in only 92 countries participating, down from 121 in 1972 and the lowest number since the 1960 Rome Games in which 80 states competed.
  • Soviet modern pentathlete Boris Onischenko was found to have used an épée which had a pushbutton on the pommel in the fencing portion of the pentathlon event. This button, when activated, would cause the electronic scoring system to register a hit whether or not the épée had actually connected with the target area of his opponent. As a result of this discovery, he and the entire male Soviet pentathlon team were disqualified.[32]
  • Quebec, the host province, incurred $1.5 billion in debt, which was not paid off until December 2006. Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau had famously said: "The Olympics can no more lose money than a man can have a baby."[33]

1980 Summer Olympics

  • 1980 Summer Olympics boycott: U.S. President Jimmy Carter issued a boycott of the games to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, as the Games were held in Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union. Many nations refused to participate in the Games. The exact number of boycotting nations is difficult to determine, as a total of 62 eligible countries failed to participate, but some of those countries withdrew due to financial hardships, only claiming to join the boycott to avoid embarrassment. Only 80 countries participated in the Moscow games, fewer than the 92 that had joined the 1976 games which had also been the target of boycotts and the lowest number since the 1960 Rome Games which had also hosted 80 countries. A substitute event, titled the Liberty Bell Classic (often referred to as Olympic Boycott Games) was held at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia by 29 of the boycotting countries.
  • Polish gold medalist pole vaulter Władysław Kozakiewicz showed an obscene bras d'honneur gesture in all four directions to the jeering Soviet public, causing an international scandal and almost losing his medal as a result. There were numerous incidents and accusations of Soviet officials using their authority to negate marks by opponents to the point that IAAF officials found the need to look over the officials shoulders to try to keep the events fair. There were also accusations of opening stadium gates to advantage Soviet athletes, and causing other disturbances to opposing athletes.[34][35][36][37][38]

1984 Summer Olympics

  • In the finals of the 3000 metre track event, a collision involving South African Zola Budd (competing for Great Britain) and Mary Decker of the United States resulted in the latter being unable to complete the race. Although Budd was leading at the time of the collision, and regained and held the lead for a while after it, she eventually finished 7th, fading in the final lap, after boos from the crowd. An IAAF jury later found Budd not responsible for the collision.
  • The men's light heavyweight boxing match between Kevin Barry and Evander Holyfield ended in controversy, when referee Gligorije Novicic of Yugoslavia disqualified a clearly dominant Holyfield for repeatedly hitting on the break. Barry was awarded the silver medal, with Holyfield settling for bronze.

1988 Summer Olympics

  • North Korea boycotted the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Albania, Cuba, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Nicaragua, and Seychelles also did not attend the games.[42]
  • Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson was stripped of his gold medal for the 100 metres when he tested positive for stanozolol after the event.
  • In a highly controversial 3–2 judge's decision, South Korean [43]
  • New Zealand referee Keith Walker was physically assaulted by Korean boxing officials, including at least two coaches and security guards, after announcing Bulgaria's victory over South Korea[44][45]

1992 Summer Olympics

  • Russian weightlifter Ibragim Samadov was disqualified for protest after he refused to accept the bronze medal. He was eventually banned for the rest of his life.

1996 Summer Olympics

2000 Summer Olympics

  • In the Women's artistic gymnastics, Australian competitor Allana Slater complained that the vault was set too low. The vault was measured and found to be 5 centimetres lower than it should have been. A number of the gymnasts made unusual errors, including the American Elise Ray, who missed the vault completely in her warm-up, and British Annika Reeder, who fell and had to be carried off the mat after being injured. After Svetlana Khorkina’s warm-up, she complained to officials that the vault was set too low, but her protests were ignored. She proceeded to take her first attempt, but crashed painfully on her knees, ruining her chances of gold.
  • Romanian Andreea Răducan became the first gymnast to be stripped of a medal after testing positive for pseudoephedrine, at the time a prohibited substance.[46] Răducan, 16, took Nurofen, a common over-the-counter medicine, to help treat a fever. The Romanian team doctor who gave her the medication was expelled from the Games and suspended for four years. The gold medal was finally awarded to Răducan's team mate Simona Amânar, who had obtained silver. Răducan was allowed to keep her other medals, a gold from the team competition and a silver from the vault.
  • Chinese gymnast Dong Fangxiao was stripped of a bronze medal in April 2010. Investigations by the sport's governing body (FIG) found that she was only 14 at the 2000 Games. (To be eligible the gymnastic athletes must turn 16 during the Olympic year). Dong also lost a sixth-place result in the individual floor exercises and seventh in the vault. FIG recommended the IOC take the medal back as her scores aided China in winning the team bronze. The US women's team, who had come fourth in the event, then moved up to third (bronze medal).[47]
  • United States sprinter Marion Jones won 5 medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, Long jump, 4x100 metres relay and 4x400 metres relay. In 2007, after a lengthy investigation of the BALCO case, Jones admitted in court to having taken performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). She and her relay teammates were subsequently stripped of their Olympic medals.[48] Other individual medalists were advanced, but not all of them. 100 metres silver medalist Ekaterini Thanou of Greece cannot be a true winner, because she was accused of evading drug testing herself before the 2004 Summer Olympics in her home country, which she suddenly withdrew from at the last minute. She eventually accepted a ban for violating the policy.[49] Amid the controversy, the IOC chose not to advance her medal, instead awarding an additional silver and bronze, but no gold in the event.[50] The reshuffling of medals involving the relay teams are still pending legal appeals. A precedent was established when the winning American men's 4x400 metres relay team was originally allowed to keep their medals, even though Jerome Young had also admitted taking PEDs and was disqualified. The narrow legal difference is that Young only ran in the preliminary races while Jones ran in the final. That men's relay team has now been disqualified with the additional admission of PED violation by Antonio Pettigrew who ran in the final. Amid the continuing controversy, the IOC has yet to announce the medal advancement for the relays.[51]

2004 Summer Olympics

  • American gymnast Paul Hamm won gold-medal in the Men's all-around competition. But his gold medal was put into doubt when later the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) ruled that South Korean bronze-medalist Yang Tae-young was incorrectly given a start value of 9.9 instead of 10.0 by judges in the parallel bars portion of the all-around event final. The 0.1-point discrepancy was enough to bump Yang from bronze to gold. While the FIG did suspend the three judges for the error, the FIG did also rule the final results would remain unchanged. Yang later filed an official appeal seeking to have his score change and be awarded a gold medal. Upgrading a medal to a gold following the conclusion of an event and appeal was not unprecedented, with only 2 years passed since the upgrading of the silver medals won by Jamie Sale and David Pelletier of Canada in the figure skating pairs competition to gold following the scoring controversy of 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake. Yang's appeal, however, would prove unsuccessful.
  • While leading in the men's marathon with less than 10 kilometres to go, Brazilian runner Vanderlei de Lima was attacked by Irish priest Cornelius Horan and dragged into the crowd. De Lima recovered to take bronze, and was later awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship.
  • Irish showjumper Cian O'Connor's horse, Waterford Crystal, tested positive for fluphenazine and zuclophenthixol months after receiving a gold medal. The subsequent investigation was hampered by several suspicious events. When O'Connor requested a second test, the horse's B urine sample was stolen en route to a laboratory. Documents about another horse belonging to O'Connor were stolen in a break-in at the Equestrian Federation of Ireland's headquarters. Finally, in the spring of 2005, O'Connor was stripped of the gold medal.
  • Hungarian fencing official Joszef Hidasi was suspended for two years by the FIE after committing six errors in favor of Italy during the gold-medal match in men's team foil, robbing China the gold medal with result 45–42.[52]
  • In the women's 100m hurdles, Canadian sprinter Perdita Felicien stepped on the first hurdle, tumbling to the ground and taking Russian Irina Shevchenko with her. The Russian Federation filed an unsuccessful protest, pushing the medal ceremony back a day. Track officials debated for about two hours before rejecting the Russians' arguments. The race was won by the United States' Joanna Hayes in Olympic-record time.
  • In a tournament match in men's volleyball, the US and Greece were in the final game of the match (Game 5). When the Americans were handling the ball, a whistle was blown from the audience. As a result, the Greeks stopped their defense because in volleyball the ball is "dead" as soon as a whistle blows. To the officials however, it was a still a live ball. That let the Americans make the last spike to win by two to move to the next round. The Greek team protested, but the officials let the play count. No appeal has been made.
  • Iranian judoist Arash Miresmaili was disqualified after he was found to be overweight before a judo bout against Israeli Ehud Vaks. He had gone on an eating binge the night before in a protest against the IOC's recognition of the state of Israel. It was reported that Iranian Olympic team chairman Nassrollah Sajadi had suggested that the Iranian government should give him $115,000 (the amount he would have received if he had won the gold medal) as a reward for his actions. Then-President of Iran, Mohammad Khatami, who was reported to have said that Arash's refusal to fight the Israeli would be "recorded in the history of Iranian glories", stated that the nation considered him to be "the champion of the 2004 Olympic Games."

2008 Summer Olympics

  • Players for the Spanish men’s and women’s basketball teams posed for a pre-Olympic newspaper advertisement in popular Spanish daily Marca, in which they were pictured pulling back the skin on either side of their eyes, narrowing them in order to mimic the stereotypes of thin Asian eyes.[53]
  • Swedish wrestler Ara Abrahamian placed his bronze medal onto the floor immediately after it was placed around his neck in protest at his loss to Italian Andrea Minguzzi in the semifinals of the men's 84kg Greco-Roman wrestling event.[54] He was subsequently disqualified by the IOC. His bronze medal was stripped, but it was not handed out to Chinese wrestler Ma Sanyi, who finished fifth.
  • Questions have been raised about the ages of two Chinese female gymnasts, He Kexin and Jiang Yuyuan. This is due partly to their overly-youthful appearance, as well as a speech in 2007 by Chinese director of general administration for sport Liu Peng.[55]
  • Norway’s last-second goal against South Korea in the semifinals of handball put it through to the Gold Medal game. According to a photograph that has surfaced on the Internet, however, the ball had failed to fully cross the goal line prior to time expiring. The South Koreans protested and requested that the game continue at the overtime point. The IHF has confirmed the results of the match;[56] any shooting team sport such as handball or basketball counts a goal at the final buzzer if a player makes a successful shot before time expires. Therefore if the ball had not even started to cross the goal line before time expired in the Norway vs South Korea match, the goal would still count unless it was blocked by a South Korean defender.
  • Cuban taekwandoist Ángel Matos was banned for life from any international taekwondo events after kicking a referee in the face. Matos attacked the referee after he disqualified Matos for violating the time limit on an injury timeout.[57] He then punched another official.[58]

2012 Summer Olympics

  • The North Korean women's football team delayed their game against Colombia for an hour after the players were introduced on the jumbo screen with the South Korean flag.[59]
  • Paraskevi Papachristou was expelled by the Greek Olympic Committee after posting a racially insensitive comment on the social media website Twitter.[60][61]
  • South Korean fencer Shin A-Lam was forced to remain on the piste for over an hour after a clock malfunction with one second left at the end of her semifinal match in the individual épée versus Germany's Britta Heidemann.[62][63] An appeal from South Korea was rejected and Germany advanced to play for the Gold Medal. Shin A-Lam was offered a consolation medal but declined the offer.
  • In the men's team artistic gymnastics, Japan was promoted to the silver medal position after successfully lodging an appeal over Kōhei Uchimura's final pommel horse performance.[64]
  • Michel Morganella was expelled from the Olympics after a racist comment on Twitter about Koreans after the Swiss football team lost 2–1 to South Korea.
  • In the Men's Light Fly Gold Medal match between Kaeo Pongprayoon and Zou Shiming, the Chinese fighter won on a controversial decision. The Thai boxer was hit with a two-point penalty for an unclear offence with 9 seconds left in the bout to give the Chinese boxer the clear advantage in the point system. The crowd showed an unappreciated outcome after the Chinese boxer beat the Thai boxer 13–10. Zou's second gold made him the first man to win three medals in the light flyweight. He took bronze at the 2004 Athens Games, Gold in the 2008 Beijing Games and Gold in 2012 London Games.
  • During the semi-finals of the women's football match featuring Canada and USA, a very controversial free kick given to the Americans by Norwegian referee Christina Pedersen in 78th minute with the Canadians leading 3-2 allowed the Americans to score, forcing extra time, where the Americans then won. Comments by Canadian captain Christine Sinclair questioning the delay of time call made against goalkeeper Erin McLeod, which is a call rarely made unless the goalkeeper is blatantly wasting time, led to a suspension from FIFA following the Olympics. The US ended up winning gold in the final and Canada finished with a bronze.[65]
  • The Indian Olympic Committee lodged a protest against the judges decision in the match between Indian boxer Sumit Sangwan and Brazilian Yamaguchi Falcao. The judges awarded the match 15–14 in favour of the Brazilian. ESPN commentators who were surprised by the verdict called it "daylight robbery".[16] However, the protest which was specific to Round 2 of the disputed match was turned down by the jury.[66]
  • In the Men's Bantamweight early round match, Japanese boxer Satoshi Shimizu floored Magomed Abdulhamidov of Azerbaijan six times in the third round. The referee, Ishanguly Meretnyyazov of Turkmenistan, never scored a count in each of the six knockdowns and let the fight continue on. Meretnyyazov claimed they were slips, and even fixed Abdulhamidov's headgear during the affair. Abdulhamidov had to be helped to his corner following the round. The fight was scored 22-17 in favor of Abdulhamidov. AIBA, governing body for Olympic boxing, turned over the result following an appeal by Japan.[67]

Winter Olympics

1968 Winter Olympics

  • French skier Jean-Claude Killy achieved a clean sweep of the then-three alpine skiing medals at Grenoble, but only after what the IOC bills as the "greatest controversy in the history of the Winter Olympics."[68] The slalom run was held in poor visibility and Austrian skier Karl Schranz claimed a mysterious man in black crossed his path during the slalom race, causing him to stop. Schranz was given a restart and posted the fastest time. A Jury of Appeal then reviewed the television footage, declared that Schranz had missed a gate on the upper part of the first run, annulled his repeat run time, and gave the medal to Killy.
  • Three East German competitors in the women's luge event were disqualified for illegally heating their runners prior to each run.

1972 Winter Olympics

  • Austrian skier Karl Schranz, a vocal critic of then-IOC president Avery Brundage and reportedly earning $50,000 a year at the time,[69] was singled out for his status as a covertly professional athlete, notably for his relationship with the ski manufacturer Kneissl, and ejected from the games. Schranz's case was particularly high-profile because of the disqualification controversy centering on Schranz and French skier Jean-Claude Killy at the 1968 games and Schranz's subsequent dominance of alpine skiing in the Skiing World Cups of 1969 and 1970. However, the ostensible reason was that Schranz was photographed at a soccer game wearing a T-shirt with a coffee advertisement. The incident led directly to changes in athlete sponsorship rules: Schranz reportedly said of these "It's an emphasis on the wrong principle. I think the Olympics should be a contest of all sportsmen, with no regard for color, race or wealth."[69] Brundage's twenty-year reign as President of the IOC ended six months later and subsequent presidents have been limited to terms of eight years, renewable once for four years. There were no boycotts during the games, but there were few protesters.

1976 Winter Olympics

  • The chosen location for the 1976 Winter Olympics was originally Denver, Colorado. However, upon enormous concerns expressed by the city's voters, the games were relocated to Innsbruck, Austria.

1980 Winter Olympics

  • The Republic of China (Taiwan) refused to compete under the name of Chinese Taipei. It is the only case of boycotting the Winter Olympic Games.

1994 Winter Olympics

  • Jeff Gillooly, the ex-husband of U.S. figure skater Tonya Harding, arranged for an attack on her closest U.S. rival, Nancy Kerrigan, a month before the start of the Games. Both women competed, with Kerrigan winning the silver and Harding performing poorly. Harding was later banned for life both from competing in USFSA-sanctioned events and from becoming a sanctioned coach.

1998 Winter Olympics

  • At the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, a judge in the ice dancing event tape-recorded another judge trying to pre-ordain the results. Dick Pound, a prominent International Olympic Committee official, said soon afterward that ice dancing should be stripped of its status as an Olympic event unless it could clean up the perception that its judging is corrupt.[70]
  • Also making the news was Ross Rebagliati's disqualification for marijuana being found in his system and having his gold medal stripped. The IOC reinstated the medal days later.

2002 Winter Olympics

  • A number of I.O.C. members were forced to resign after it was uncovered that they had accepted inappropriately valuable "gifts" in return for voting for Salt Lake City to hold the Games.
  • Three cross-country skiers, Spaniard Johann Mühlegg and Russians Larissa Lazutina and Olga Danilova, were disqualified after blood tests indicated the use of darbepoetin. Following a December 2003 ruling by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), the I.O.C in February 2004 withdrew all the doped athletes' medals from the Games, amending the result lists accordingly.
  • South Korean speedskater Kim Dong-Sung was disqualified for cross-tracking (cutting off another skater) through the final turn of the men's 1500 metre short-track speedskating final. This disqualification handed the gold to American Apolo Anton Ohno.

2006 Winter Olympics

  • Members of the Austrian biathlon team had their Olympic Village residences raided by Italian authorities, who were investigating doping charges.
  • Russian biathlete Olga Medvedtseva was stripped of her silver medal won in the individual race, due to positive drug test. A two-year ban from any competition was imposed.

2010 Winter Olympics

  • For the first time since 1994, a male skater was awarded the gold medal without performing a quadruple jump.

2014 Winter Olympics

  • In August 2008, the government of Georgia called for a boycott of the International Olympic Committee responded to concerns about the status of the 2014 games by stating that it was "premature to make judgments about how events happening today might sit with an event taking place six years from now."[72]
  • In mid-2013, a number of organizations, including Human Rights Watch,[73] began calling for a boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics due to oppressive and homophobic legislation that bans 'gay propaganda',[74] including the open acknowledgement of gay identities, the display of rainbow flags and public displays of affection between same-sex couples.[75] Since June 2013 there have been ongoing Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws.
  • German president Joachim Gauck would not attend the games according to a report.[76]
  • Lebanese Olympic Skier, Jackie Chamoun, who had a photo shoot taken of her wearing nothing but ski boots and a thong, had the Lebanese government claim that she damaged the reputation of her country.[77]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Politics no stranger to Olympic Games".  
  2. ^ History Talk
  3. ^ a b "International Olympic Committee – Athletes". Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  4. ^ "AbeBooks: Crisis at the Olympics". Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  5. ^ Guttmann, Allen (1992). The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 38.  
  6. ^ Newman, Saul. "Why Grandpa boycotted the Olympics". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  7. ^ a b "The Movement to Boycott the Berlin Olympics of 1936". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Gov. Earl Urges U.S. Olympic Ban. He Says Here Nazis Will 'Sell' Their Philosophy to All Who Attend the Games".  
  9. ^ "Nazification of Sport". The Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936 (Online Exhibition). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Guttmann, Allen (1984). The games must go on : Avery Brundage and the Olympic Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 69–70.  
  11. ^ Paul Taylor (2004). Jews and the Olympic Games: the clash between sport and politics: with a complete review of Jewish Olympic medalists. Sussex Academic Press.  
  12. ^ Hipsh, Rami (25 November 2009). "German film helps Jewish athlete right historical wrong". Haaretz. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Sandomir, Richard (7 July 2004). Hitler's Pawn' on HBO: An Olympic Betrayal"'". New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Lehrer, Steven (2006). The Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker complex : an illustrated history of the seat of the Nazi regime. Jefferson, N.C. [u.a.]: McFarland & Co. pp. 47–48.  
  15. ^ Hyde Flippo, The 1936 Berlin Olympics: Hitler and Jesse Owens, German Myth 10,
  16. ^ Rick Shenkman, Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens and the Olympics Myth of 1936 February 13, 2002 from History News Network (article excerpted from Rick Shenkman's Legends, Lies and Cherished Myths of American History, William Morrow & Co, 1988 ISBN 0-688-06580-5)
  17. ^ "Owens Arrives With Kind Words For All Officials". The Pittsburgh Press. 24 August 1936. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
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External links

  • Moran, Michael; Bajoria, Jayshree; et al. "Politics and the Olympics".  
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