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Omacetaxine mepesuccinate

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Omacetaxine mepesuccinate


Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (INN, trade name Synribo) is a pharmaceutical drug that is indicated for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is a semi-synthetic derivative of the alkaloid cephalotaxine from Cephalotaxus harringtonia. It was approved by the US FDA in October 2012 for the treatment of adult patients with CML with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).[1]

Medical uses

Omacetaxine is indicated for use as a treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who are intolerant of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.[2][3][4]

In June 2009, results of a long-term open label Phase II study were published, which investigated the use of omacetaxine infusions in CML patients. After twelve months of treatment, about one third of patients showed a cytogenetic response.[5] A study in patients who had failed imatinib and who had the drug resistant T315I mutation achieved cytogenetic response in 28% of patients and haematological response in 80% of patients, according to preliminary data.[6]

Phase I studies including a small number of patients have shown benefit in treating myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 25 patients)[7] and acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML, 76 patients).[8] Patients with solid tumors did not benefit from omacetaxine.[9]

Adverse effects

By frequency:[1][2]
Very common (>10% frequency):

Common (1-10% frequency):

  • Seizures
  • GI haemorrhages

Myelosuppression, including: thrombocytopenia, anaemia, neutropenia and lymphopenia, in descending order of frequency.

Mechanism of action

Omacetaxine is a protein translation inhibitor. It inhibits protein translation by preventing the initial elongation step of protein synthesis. It interacts with the ribosomal A-site and prevents the correct positioning of amino acid side chains of incoming aminoacyl-tRNAs. Omacetaxine acts only on the initial step of protein translation and does not inhibit protein synthesis from mRNAs that have already commenced translation.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b "Synribo (omacetaxine) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "SYNRIBO (omacetaxine mepesuccinate) injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution [Cephalon, Inc.]". DailyMed. Cephalon, Inc. October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Sweetman, S, ed. (14 November 2012). "Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Medicines Complete (Pharmaceutical Press). 
  4. ^ Lacroix, Marc (2014). Targeted Therapies in Cancer. Hauppauge , NY: Nova Sciences Publishers.  
  5. ^ Li, Y. F.; Deng, Z. K.; Xuan, H. B.; Zhu, J. B.; Ding, B. H.; Liu, X. N.; Chen, B. A. (2009). "Prolonged chronic phase in chronic myelogenous leukemia after homoharringtonine therapy". Chinese medical journal 122 (12): 1413–1417.  
  6. ^ Quintás-Cardama, A.; Kantarjian, H.; Cortes, J. (2009). "Homoharringtonine, omacetaxine mepesuccinate, and chronic myeloid leukemia circa 2009". Cancer 115 (23): 5382–5393.  
  7. ^ Wu, L.; Li, X.; Su, J.; Chang, C.; He, Q.; Zhang, X.; Xu, L.; Song, L.; Pu, Q. (2009). "Effect of low-dose cytarabine, homoharringtonine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen on patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome". Leukemia & Lymphoma 50 (9): 1461.  
  8. ^ Gu, L. F.; Zhang, W. G.; Wang, F. X.; Cao, X. M.; Chen, Y. X.; He, A. L.; Liu, J.; Ma, X. R. (2010). "Low dose of homoharringtonine and cytarabine combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming on the outcome of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia". Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 137 (6): 997–1003.  
  9. ^ Kantarjian, H. M.; Talpaz, M.; Santini, V.; Murgo, A.; Cheson, B.; O'Brien, S. M. (2001). "Homoharringtonine". Cancer 92 (6): 1591–1605.  
  10. ^ Wetzler M, Segal D. Omacetaxine as an Anticancer Therapeutic: What is Old is New Again. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2011;17:59-64
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