World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Open system (systems theory)

Article Id: WHEBN0000265816
Reproduction Date:

Title: Open system (systems theory)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: System, Black box, Glossary of systems theory, Open and closed systems in social science, Living systems
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Open system (systems theory)

Open system have input and output flows, representing exchanges of matter, energy or information with its surroundings.

A opened system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary, depending on the discipline which defines the concept. An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment. Open system is also known as constant volume system and flow system

The concept of an open system was formalized within a framework that enabled one to interrelate the thermodynamics, and evolutionary theory.[1] This concept was expanded upon with the advent of information theory and subsequently systems theory. Today the concept has its applications in the natural and social sciences.

In the natural sciences an open system is one whose border is permeable to both energy and mass.[2] In physics a closed system, by contrast, is permeable to energy but not to matter.

Open systems have a number of consequences. A closed system contains limited energies. The definition of an open system assumes that there are supplies of energy that cannot be depleted; in practice, this energy is supplied from some source in the surrounding environment, which can be treated as infinite for the purposes of study. One type of open system is the so-called radiant energy system, which receives its energy from solar radiation – an energy source that can be regarded as inexhaustible for all practical purposes.

They are also known as OSM.

Social sciences

In the social sciences an open system is a process that exchanges material, energy, people, capital and information with its environment. French/Greek philosopher Kostas Axelos argued that seeing the "world system" as inherently open (though unified) would solve many of the problems in the social sciences, including that of praxis (the relation of knowledge to practice), so that various social scientific disciplines would work together rather than create a monopoly whereby the world appears only sociological, political, historical, or psychological. Axelos argues that theorizing a closed system contributes to making it closed, and is thus a conservative approach.[3] The Althusserian concept of overdetermination (drawing on Sigmund Freud) posits that there are always multiple causes in every event.[4] David Harvey uses this to argue that when systems such as capitalism enter a phase of crisis, it could happen through one of a number of elements, such as gender roles, the relation to nature/the environment, or crises in accumulation.[5] Looking at the crisis in accumulation, Harvey argues that phenomena such as foreign direct investment, privatization of state-owned resources, and accumulation by dispossession act as necessary outlets when capital has overaccumulated too much in private hands and cannot circulate effectively in the marketplace. He cites the forcible displacement of Mexican and Indian peasants since the 1970s and the Asian and South-East Asian financial crisis of 1997-8, involving "hedge fund raising" of national currencies, as examples of this.[6]

Structural functionalists such as Talcott Parsons and neofunctionalists such as Niklas Luhmann have incorporated system theory to describe society and its components.

Thermodynamics

Systems engineering

Scheme of a black box

See also

References

  1. ^ Luhmann, Niklas. Social Systems. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995; pp. 6-7
  2. ^ Glossary Maxwell Demon, 1998.
  3. ^ Axelos, K. ([2006] 1984). "The World: Being Becoming Totality," from Systematique ouverte (Trans. Gerald Moore, Les Editions de Minuit: Paris). Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 24, 643-651.
  4. ^ Althusser, L. ([2005] 1969). For Marx. London: Verso Books, Ch. 3: "Contradiction and Overdetermination," [1].
  5. ^ RSA Animate - David Harvey, The Crises of Capitalism: [2].
  6. ^ Harvey, D. (2005). The New Imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press USA, Ch. 3: "Accumulation by Dispossession," 137-182.

Further reading

  • Khalil, E.L. (1995). Nonlinear thermodynamics and social science modeling: fad cycles, cultural development and identificational slips. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 54, Issue 4, pp. 423–438.
  • Weber, B.H. (1989). Ethical Implications Of The Interface Of Natural And Artificial Systems. Delicate Balance: Technics, Culture and Consequences: Conference Proceedings for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

External links

  • OPEN SYSTEM, Pricipea Cybernetica Web, 2007.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.