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POSIX Threads

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POSIX Threads

POSIX Threads, usually referred to as Pthreads, is an example of an execution model that exists independently from a language, as well as an example of a parallel execution model. It allows a program to control multiple different flows of work that overlap in time. Each flow of work is referred to as a Thread, and creation and control over these flows is achieved by making calls to the POSIX Threads API.

POSIX Threads is a POSIX standard for threads. The standard, POSIX.1c, Threads extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995), defines an API for creating and manipulating threads.

Implementations of the API are available on many Unix-like POSIX-conformant operating systems such as FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Linux, Mac OS X and Solaris. DR-DOS and Microsoft Windows implementations also exist: within the SFU/SUA subsystem which provides a native implementation of a number of POSIX APIs, and also within third-party packages such as pthreads-w32,[1] which implements pthreads on top of existing Windows API.

Contents

  • Contents 1
  • Example 2
  • POSIX Threads for Windows 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Contents

Pthreads defines a set of C programming language types, functions and constants. It is implemented with a pthread.h header and a thread library.

There are around 100 Pthreads procedures, all prefixed "pthread_" and they can be categorized into four groups:

The POSIX semaphore API works with POSIX threads but is not part of threads standard, having been defined in the POSIX.1b, Real-time extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993) standard. Consequently the semaphore procedures are prefixed by "sem_" instead of "pthread_".

Example

An example illustrating the use of Pthreads in C:

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
 
#define NUM_THREADS     5
 
void *perform_work(void *argument)
{
   int passed_in_value;
 
   passed_in_value = *((int *) argument);
   printf("Hello World! It's me, thread with argument %d!\n", passed_in_value);
 
   /* optionally: insert more useful stuff here */
 
   return NULL;
}
 
int main(void)
{
   pthread_t threads[NUM_THREADS];
   int thread_args[NUM_THREADS];
   int result_code, index;
 
   // create all threads one by one
   for (index = 0; index < NUM_THREADS; ++index) {
      thread_args[index] = index;
      printf("In main: creating thread %d\n", index);
      result_code = pthread_create(&threads[index], NULL, perform_work, (void *) &thread_args[index]);
      assert(0 == result_code);
   }
 
   // wait for each thread to complete
   for (index = 0; index < NUM_THREADS; ++index) {
      // block until thread 'index' completes
      result_code = pthread_join(threads[index], NULL);
      printf("In main: thread %d has completed\n", index);
      assert(0 == result_code);
   }
 
   printf("In main: All threads completed successfully\n");
   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

This program creates five threads, each executing the function perform_work that prints the unique number of this thread to standard output. If a programmer wanted the threads to communicate with each other, this would require defining a variable outside of the scope of any of the functions, making it a global variable. This program can be compiled using the gcc compiler with the following command:

gcc pthreads_demo.c -lpthread -o pthreads_demo

POSIX Threads for Windows

Windows does not support the pthreads standard natively, therefore the Pthreads-w32 project seeks to provide a portable and open-source wrapper implementation. It can also be used to port Unix software (which use pthreads) with little or no modification to the Windows platform.[2] With some additional patches the last version 2.8.0 is compatible with 64-bit Windows systems.[3][4][5] 2.9.0 is said to also be 64-bit compatible.[6]

The mingw-w64 project also contains a wrapper implementation of pthreads, winpthreads,[7] which tries to use more native system calls than the Pthreads-w32 project.[8]

Interix environment subsystem available in the Windows Services for UNIX/Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications package provides a native port of the pthreads API, i.e. not mapped on Win32/Win64 API but built directly on the operating system syscall interface.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pthread Win-32: Level of standards conformance". 2006-12-22. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  2. ^ Hart, Johnson M. (2004-11-21). "Experiments with the Open Source Pthreads Library and Some Comments". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  3. ^ "pthread-win32_x64.zip Source and binary for Pthreads-w32 v2.8.0". 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  4. ^ "Forum discussion: pthreads-on-64bit-Windows". 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  5. ^ Compile pthreads – mingw-w64
  6. ^ http://sourceware.org/pthreads-win32/news.html -- the "64 bit" mentions
  7. ^ mingw-w64 - Revision 5520: /experimental/winpthreads
  8. ^ see http://locklessinc.com/articles/pthreads_on_windows which is where it was originally derived from
  9. ^ "Chapter 1: Introduction to Windows Services for UNIX 3.5". 

Further reading

  • David R. Butenhof. Programming with POSIX Threads. Addison-Wesley.  
  • Bradford Nichols, Dick Buttlar, Jacqueline Proulx Farell. Pthreads Programming. O'Reilly & Associates.  
  • Charles J. Northrup. Programming with UNIX Threads. John Wiley & Sons.  
  • Kay A. Robbins and Steven Robbins. UNIX Systems Programming. Prentice-Hall.  

External links

  • The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, IEEE Std 1003.1
  • HTML5 Presentation on Multi-Threading & POSIX Thread APIs
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