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Pamaquine

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Title: Pamaquine  
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Subject: 8-Aminoquinoline, Aminoquinoline, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Artemether/lumefantrine, Antimalarial agents
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Pamaquine

Pamaquine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N,N-diethyl-N'-(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)pentane-
1,4-diamine
Clinical data
Legal status
?
Identifiers
CAS number  N
ATC code None
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
ChEMBL  YesY
Chemical data
Formula C19H29N3O 
Mol. mass 315.453 g/mol
 N   

Pamaquine is an 8-aminoquinoline drug used for the treatment of malaria. It is closely related to primaquine.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Adverse effects 2
  • Uses 3
  • Dosing 4
  • Synonyms 5
  • References 6

History

Pamaquine was the second synthetic antimalarial drug to be discovered (after methylene blue). It was synthesised by Schulemann, Schoenhoeffer and Wingler in 1924. In 1926, Roehl demonstrated that pamaquine was effective in treating malaria in birds, and introduced it into use in humans.[1]

A large trial of pamaquine performed by the Royal Army Medical Corps and the Indian Medical Corps in 1929 showed for the first time that it was possible to prevent relapse of vivax malaria.[2] Prior to this, it was understood that patients with vivax malaria would suffer from relapses, but there was no treatment that could prevent the relapses from occurring.

Adverse effects

Like primaquine, pamaquine causes haemolytic anaemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. Patients should therefore always be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to being prescribed pamaquine.

Uses

Pamaquine is effective against the hypnozoites of the relapsing malarias (P. vivax and P. ovale); and unlike primaquine, it is also very effective against the erythrocytic stages of all four human malarias. One small clinical trial of pamaquine as a causal prophylactic was disappointing[3] (whereas primaquine is an extremely effective causal prophylactic).

Dosing

Pamaquine is more toxic and less efficacious than

  1. ^ Roehl W (1926). "Die Wirkung of Plasmochins auf die Vogelmalaria". Arch Schiffs-Tropenhyg 30 (Suppl 3): 311–318. 
  2. ^ a b c Manifold J (1931). "Report on a trial of plasmoquine and quinine in the treatment of benign tertian malaria". Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps LVI (5): 321–338,410–423. 
  3. ^ Sweeney AW, Blackburn CRB, KH Rieckmann. (1 August 2004). (New Guinea strains)"Plasmodium vivax"Short report: The activity of pamaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline drug, against sporozoite-induced infections of . Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (2): 187–189.  
  4. ^ World Health Organization (2010). Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. p. 194. 
  5. ^ Earle DP, Bigelow FS, Zubrod CG, Kane CA. (1947). "Studies on the chemotherapy of the human malarias. IX. Effect of pamaquine on the blood cells of man". Journal of clinical investigation 27 (3 Pt 1): 121–129.  
  6. ^ Sweeney AW, Blackburn CRB, Rieckmann KH (2004). "Short report: the activity of pamaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline drug, against sporozoite-induced infections of Plasmodium vivax (New Guinea strains).". Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (2): 187–9.  

References

  • Plasmochin
  • Plasmoquine[2]
  • Plasmaquine

Synonyms

  • 20mg twice daily for 21 days.[2]
  • 30mg once daily for 14 days.[5]
  • 30mg once daily for 5 days.[6]

There is no established dosing for pamaquine. The following regimens have been used, but the optimal dosing is unknown:

[4]

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