World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Parasympathomimetic drug

Article Id: WHEBN0000740295
Reproduction Date:

Title: Parasympathomimetic drug  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Neuromodulation, Parasympathomimetics, Glaucoma medication, 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, Demecarium bromide
Collection: Parasympathomimetics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Parasympathomimetic drug

A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).[1] These chemicals are also called cholinergic drugs because acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used by the PSNS. Chemicals in this family can act either directly by stimulating the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors (thus mimicking acetylcholine), or indirectly by inhibiting cholinesterase, promoting acetylcholine release, or other mechanisms. [2]

Some chemical weapons such as sarin or VX, non-lethal riot control agents such as tear gas, and insecticides such as diazinon fall into this category.

Contents

  • Structure activity relationships for parasympathomimetic drugs 1
  • Pharmaceuticals 2
    • Direct-acting 2.1
    • Indirect-acting 2.2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • External links 5

Structure activity relationships for parasympathomimetic drugs[3]

For a cholinergic agent, the following criteria describe the structure activity relationship:

  1. Ing's Rule of 5: There should be no more than five atoms between the nitrogen and the terminal hydrogen for Muscarinic (or cholinergic) activity.
  2. molecule must possess a nitrogen atom capable of bearing a positive charge, preferably a quaternary ammonium salt.
  3. for maximum potency, the size of the alkyl groups substituted on the nitrogen should not exceed the size of a methyl group.
  4. The molecule should have an oxygen atom, preferably an ester-like oxygen capable of participating in a hydrogen bond.
  5. There should be a two-carbon unit between the oxygen atom and the nitrogen atom.

Pharmaceuticals

Direct-acting

These act by stimulating the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors.

Indirect-acting

Indirect acting parasympathomimetic drugs may be either reversible cholinesterase inhibitors, irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors or drugs that promote ACh release or anti-adrenergics. The latter inhibits the antagonistic system, the sympathetic nervous system.

See also: alpha blocker and beta blocker

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:parasympathomimetic". 
  2. ^ Brenner, G. M. (2000). Pharmacology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7757-6
  3. ^ Medicinal Chemistry of Adrenergics and Cholinergics
  4. ^ Karadsheh, N; Kussie, P; Linthicum, DS (1991). "Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by caffeine, anabasine, methyl pyrrolidine and their derivatives". Toxicology letters 55 (3): 335–42.  
  5. ^ Pohanka, M (2014). "The effects of caffeine on the cholinergic system.". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 14 (6): 543–549.  

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.