World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pentium FDIV bug

Article Id: WHEBN0000024637
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pentium FDIV bug  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: X86 architecture, WavPack, P5 (microarchitecture), Automated theorem proving, Integrated circuit design
Collection: Hardware Bugs, X86 Architecture
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pentium FDIV bug

66 MHz Intel Pentium (sSpec=SX837) with the FDIV bug

The Pentium FDIV bug is a bug in the Intel P5 Pentium floating point unit (FPU). Because of the bug, the processor can return incorrect decimal results, an issue troublesome for the precise calculations needed in fields like math and science. Discovered by Professor Thomas R. Nicely at Lynchburg College,[1] Intel blamed the error on missing entries in the lookup table used by the floating-point division circuitry.[2]

Though rarely encountered by average users (Byte magazine estimated that 1 in 9 billion floating point divides with random parameters would produce inaccurate results),[3] both the flaw and Intel's initial handling of the matter were heavily criticized. Intel ultimately recalled the defective processors.


  • Chronology 1
  • Affected models 2
  • Example symptoms 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Thomas Nicely, a professor of mathematics at Lynchburg College, had written code to enumerate primes, twin primes, prime triplets, and prime quadruplets. Nicely noticed some inconsistencies in the calculations on June 13, 1994, shortly after adding a Pentium system to his group of computers, but was unable to eliminate other factors (such as programming errors, motherboard chipsets, etc.) until October 19, 1994. On October 24, 1994, he reported the issue to Intel. According to Nicely, his contact person at Intel later admitted that Intel had been aware of the problem since May 1994, when the flaw was discovered by Tom Kraljevic, a Purdue co-op student working for Intel in Hillsboro, OR, during testing of the FPU for its new P6 core, first used in the Pentium Pro.

On October 30, 1994, Nicely sent an email describing the error he had discovered in the Pentium floating point unit to various contacts, requesting reports of testing for the flaw on 486-DX4s, Pentiums and Pentium clones.[1]

This flaw in the Pentium FPU was quickly verified by other people around the Internet, and became known as the Pentium FDIV bug (FDIV is the x86 assembly language mnemonic for floating-point division). One example was found where the division result returned by the Pentium was off by about 61 parts per million.[1]

The story first appeared in the press on November 7, 1994, in an article in Electronic Engineering Times, "Intel fixes a Pentium FPU glitch" by Alexander Wolfe.[4]

The story was subsequently picked up by CNN in a segment aired on November 21, 1994.[1] This brought it into widespread public prominence.

Publicly, Intel acknowledged the floating-point flaw, but claimed that it was not serious and would not affect most users. Intel offered to replace processors to users who could prove that they were affected. However, although most independent estimates found the bug to be of little importance and would have negligible effect on most users, it caused a great public outcry. Companies like IBM (whose IBM 5x86C microprocessor competed at that time with the Intel Pentium line) joined the condemnation.

On December 20, 1994, Intel offered to replace all flawed Pentium processors on the basis of request, in response to mounting public pressure.[5] Although it turned out that only a small fraction of Pentium owners bothered to get their chips replaced, the financial impact on the company was significant. On January 17, 1995, Intel announced a pre-tax charge of $475 million against earnings, ostensibly the total cost associated with replacement of the flawed processors.[1] Some of the defective chips were later turned into key rings by Intel.[6]

A 1995 article in Science describes the value of number theory problems in discovering computer bugs and gives the mathematical background and history of Brun's constant, the problem Nicely was working on when he discovered the bug.[7]

Affected models

This problem occurs only on some models of the original Pentium processor.[8] Any Pentium family processor with a clock speed of at least 120 MHz is new enough not to have this bug.[8] On affected models, the Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility checks for the presence of this bug.

The ten affected processors are listed below. The 39 S-spec of those processors are not listed in the Intel processor specification finder web page.
Pentium P5 800 nm 5V
Family Model Stepping Core stepping Clock rate FSB speed S-spec
5 1 3 B1 60 MHz 60 MHz Q0352, Q0412, SX753
5 1 3 B1 66 MHz 66 MHz Q0353, Q0413, SX754
5 1 5 C1 60 MHz 60 MHz Q0466, SX835, SZ949
5 1 5 C1 66 MHz 66 MHz Q0467, SX837, SZ950
Pentium P54C 600 nm 3.3V
Family Model Stepping Core stepping Clock rate FSB speed S-spec
5 2 1 B1 75 MHz 50 MHz Q0601
5 2 1 B1 90 MHz 60 MHz Q0542, Q0613, Q0543, SX879, SX885, SX909, SX874
5 2 1 B1 100 MHz 66 MHz Q0563, Q0587, Q0614, SX886, SX910
5 2 2 B3 75 MHz 50 MHz Q0606, SX951
5 2 2 B3 90 MHz 60 MHz Q0628, Q0611, Q0612, SX923, SX922, SX921, SX942, SX943, SX944, SZ951
5 2 2 B3 100 MHz 66 MHz Q0677, SX960

Example symptoms

The presence of the bug can be checked manually by performing the following calculation in any application that uses native floating point numbers, including the Windows Calculator or Microsoft Excel in Windows 95/98.

The correct value is (where 4,195,835 = 0x4005FB and 3,145,727 = 0x2FFFFF and the '5' in 0x4005 hits the fault in the FPU control logic)

\textstyle \frac{4,195,835}{3,145,727} = 1.333820449136241002

However, the value returned by a flawed Pentium processor is incorrect at or beyond four digits:[9]

\textstyle \frac{4,195,835}{3,145,727} = 1.333{\color{Red}{739068902037589}}

Another way of detecting the bug is using the pentnt utility included with Windows NT 3.51, NT 4.0, 2000, and XP.[10]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Professor Thomas Nicely. "Pentium FDIV flaw FAQ". 
  2. ^ "FDIV Replacement Program: Description of the Flaw".  
  3. ^ Tom R. Halfhill (March 1995). "An error in a lookup table created the infamous bug in Intel's latest processor" (– Scholar search).  
  4. ^ Alexander Wolfe. "Intel fixes a Pentium FPU glitch". 
  5. ^ "Intel adopts upon-request replacement policy on Pentium processors with floating point flaw; Will take Q4 charge against earnings". Business Wire. 1994-12-20. Retrieved 2006-12-24. 
  6. ^ "How many engineers does it take to change a lightbulb?". Boiledbeans. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  7. ^ Cipra, Barry (1995-01-13). "How number theory got the best of the Pentium chip". Science 267 (5195): 175.  
  8. ^ a b "FDIV Replacement Program: Frequently asked questions".  
  9. ^ "Pentium FDIV bug - a Picture". Kansas University Institute for Policy and Social Research. 1994-11-30. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  10. ^ "Pentnt". 

External links

  • Personal website of Dr. Nicely, who discovered the bug
  • A page with precise information, also about the cause
  • Ivars Peterson's Mathland on the bug
  • A Tale of Two Numbers, by Cleve Moler of MathWorks
    • ZIP-file containing more details (See ZIP file format for details on the file)
  • Intel's official site
  • Unopened Intel CPU box from the FDIV replacement program
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.