World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000495251
Reproduction Date:

Title: Penza  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Penza Oblast, Penza Airport, Zarechny, Penza Oblast, Miracle on Ice, 2009 Penza Cup
Collection: Penza, Penza Governorate, Populated Places Established in 1663
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Penza (English)
Пенза (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

Top to bottom, left to right: Historical city centre on Sura, Penza Oblast Theater of Drama, Suspension bridge over Sura River, Monument of Military and Labour Glory, Memorial complex of Glory, Kind Angel of Peace and State Emblem of the USSR monuments on Pushkin st.

Location of Penza Oblast in Russia
Penza is located in Penza Oblast
Location of Penza in Penza Oblast
Coat of arms
Anthem none[2]
Administrative status (as of November 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Penza Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Administrative center of Penza Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Municipal status (as of March 2015)
Urban okrug Penza Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Penza Urban Okrug[3]
Head[4] Yury Krivov[5]
Representative body City Duma[4]
Population (2010 Census) 517,311 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 2010 34th
Population (January 2015 est.) 522,823 inhabitants[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[8]
Founded 1663[9]
Postal code(s)[10] 440000, 440001, 440003–440005, 440007–440009, 440011–440015, 440018, 440020, 440022, 440023, 440025, 440026, 440028, 440031–440035, 440039, 440040, 440042, 440044–440047, 440049, 440052, 440054, 440056, 440058, 440060–440062, 440064, 440066–440068, 440071, 440072, 440700, 440890, 440899, 440960, 440961, 440999
Dialing code(s) +7 8412
Official website
Penza]] on Wikimedia Commons

Penza (Russian: Пенза; IPA: ) is a city and the administrative center of Penza Oblast, Russia, located on the Sura River, 625 kilometers (388 mi) southeast of Moscow. Population: 517,311 (2010 Census);[6] 518,025 (2002 Census);[11] 542,612 (1989 Census).[12]


  • History 1
  • Administrative and municipal status 2
  • Transportation 3
  • Education and culture 4
  • Climate 5
  • Sports 6
  • Honors 7
  • Notable residents 8
  • Twin towns and sister cities 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
    • Notes 11.1
    • Sources 11.2
  • External links 12


Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city,[9] and to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, and remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center. Until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. Then in May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsar's orders to direct the construction of a fortress city, as part of a wider fortress building program to protect Russia from attacks by Crimean Tatars. The initial construction consisted of a wooden Kremlin, a village, and quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, and merchants.

In 1774, the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebellious Cossacks. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13,000 people.

In 1918, Vladimir Lenin sent a telegram to communists in the Penza area, complaining about the "insurrection of five kulak districts". He urged the public hanging of 100 "landlords, richmen, bloodsuckers", grain seizure, and hostage taking. This telegram has been used in several historical works on the period and on Lenin.[13][14][15][16][17] During the Russian Civil War, the Czechoslovak Legions launched an anti-Bolshevik uprising in Penza.

During the Soviet period, the city developed as a regional industrial center. The Ural mainframe was made here between 1959 and 1964.

The confluence of the Penza and Sura Rivers

Administrative and municipal status

Penza Oblast Administration building

Penza is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Penza—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Penza is incorporated as Penza Urban Okrug.[3]


Penza is a major railway junction and lies on the M5 highway linking Moscow and Chelyabinsk. Penza Airport serves domestic flights. Local public transport includes buses, trolleybuses and marshrutkas (routed taxis).

Penza as seen from the highest point of the city

Education and culture

An 18th-century house in Penza

Currently, the city of Penza is seen as a regional center for higher education. It has six universities (the Penza State University, the Pedagogic University, the Academy of Agriculture, the Technology Institute, the University of Architecture and Construction, and the Artillery and Engineering Institute), 13 colleges and 77 public schools. Besides this, Penza is home to three theatres, four museums, and three art galleries including The Museum of One Painting named after G. V. Myasnikov.

Facilities of higher education include:

  • Penza State University
  • Penza State Pedagogical University (unified with Penza State University in 2012)
  • Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Penza Artillery Engineering Institute
  • Penza State Technological Academy
  • Penza State Agricultural Academy
  • Penza branch of the Moscow's Institute of Economics, Management and Law
  • Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship


Penza has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and warm summers. A heat wave in the months of June, July, and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms often by 15 °C (27 °F) in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40 °C (104 °F) and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20 °C (36 °F) lower.[18][19]

Climate data for Penza (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Average high °C (°F) −5.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.7
Average low °C (°F) −11.9
Record low °C (°F) −39.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 79 68 61 67 69 70 73 79 86 85 75.3
Source: Погода и Климат


Penza first hosted the Russian Sidecarcross Grand Prix in 2009, and did so again in 2010, on August 15.[20]

The city football team FC Zenit Penza was established in 1918 but now plays in the Russian Amateur League. Penza has also a professional rugby union club, Imperia-Dynamo Penza, from Russia's Professional Rugby League.


A minor planet, 3189 Penza, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh in 1978, is named after the city.[21]

Notable residents

Twin towns and sister cities

Penza is twinned with:

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #774-ZPO
  2. ^ Article 2 of the Charter of Penza states that the city may have an anthem, providing one is adopted by the City Duma. As of 2015, no anthem has been adopted.
  3. ^ a b c Law #690-ZPO
  4. ^ a b Charter of Penza, Article 18
  5. ^ Official website of Penza. Biography of Yury Ivanovich Krivov, Head of Penza (Russian)
  6. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian).  
  7. ^ Penza Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Пензенской области на 1.01.2015 (Russian)
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b Большая Советская Энциклопедия (Great Soviet Encyclopedia). Гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров, 3-е изд. Т. 19. Отоми — Пластырь. 1975. 648 стр., илл.; 29 л. илл. и карт. "Город основан в 1663 году как крепость на юго-восточной окраине Русского царства."
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Hanging order". 2010-07-22. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  14. ^ """Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1971, Moscow, Volume 36, page 489. "Telegram to Yevgenia Bosch. 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  15. ^ "An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenin's Secret Files"
  16. ^ Telegram to the Penza Gubernia Executive Committee of the Soviets in J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy's, p.77, Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State: A Brief History with Documents (2007). Bedford/St Martin's: Boston and New York: p.77
  17. ^ Translation of 'hanging order' by Robert Service, p. 365, Lenin a Biography (2000). London: Macmillan
  18. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  19. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  20. ^ FIM Sidecarcross World Championship – 2010 Calendar FIM website, accessed: October 30, 2009
  21. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – p.264. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  22. ^ "Official site of Penza". Archived from the original on July 15, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  23. ^ Penza City (Russia, sister city of Lanzhou Municipality) Archived June 23, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Ramat Gan sister cities". July 19, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 


  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №774-ЗПО от 9 марта 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2484-ЗПО от 28 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 15 Закона Пензенской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №6, стр. 49, 18 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #774-ZPO of March 9, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2484-ZPO of November 28, 2013 On Amending Article 15 of the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №690-ЗПО от 2 ноября 2004 г. «О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2681-ЗПО от 4 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Пензенской области "О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №17 (без приложения), 16 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #690-ZPO of November 2, 2004 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2681-ZPO of March 4, 2015 On Amending the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast". Effective as of after 10 days from the official publication.).

External links

  • Official website of Penza (Russian)
  • "PenzaNews" news agency
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.