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Persons related to Qur'anic verses

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Persons related to Qur'anic verses

List of people related to Quranic verses:

Ahl al-Bayt

The Ahl al-Bayt was Muhammads household. Shi'a and Sunni have differing views regarding who is included among them, and also different views regarding which verses are associated with the household.

Generally

3:61

And whoso disputeth with thee concerning him, after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, say (unto him): Come! We will summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, then we will pray humbly (to our Lord) and (solemnly) invoke the curse of Allah upon those who lie.[3:61]

According to hadith collections, in 631 an Arab Christian envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,[1] Muhammad called them to mubahala (cursing), where each party should ask God to destroy the lying party and their families.[2] Muhammad, to prove to them that he is a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah and his surviving grandchildren, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and came back to the Christians and said this is my family and covered himself and his family with a cloak.[3] Allameh Tabatabaei explains in Tafsir al-Mizan that the word "Our selves" in this verse[2] refers to Muhammad and Ali. Then he narrates Imam Ali al-Rida, eighth Shia Imam, in discussion with Al-Ma'mun, Abbasid caliph, referred to this verse to prove the superiority of Muhammad's progeny over the rest of the Muslim community, and considered it as the proof for Ali's right for caliphate due to Allah made Ali like the self of Muhammad.[4]

33:33

Surah Al-Ahzaab, Ayah 33:

"...Verily, Allah has decreed to remove fault from you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way."

Sunni view: "No! It's taken out of context, it's only talking about the wives of the Prophet!"

Firstly, it is important to note that nowhere in this Ayah are the wives of Muhammad mentioned.

Surah Al-Ahzaab, Full Ayah 33:

"Stay in your houses and do not display your finery with the display of the former [days of] ignorance. Maintain the prayer and pay the zakat and obey Allah and His Apostle. Verily, Allah has decreed to remove fault from you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way."

Each Ayah is an individual sign of Allah: "Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for evidence or sign:

"These are the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, revelations, etc.) of Allah, which We recite to you (O Muhammad) with truth. Then in which speech after Allah and His Ayat will they believe?" (Surah Al-Jathiya 45:6)

Secondly, this Ayah uses the words Ankum (from you) and Yutahhirakum (to purify you), which are both in the masculine plural form. Though it is known that in Arabic Masculine is unisex, there is a problem saying that since the fact that the previous sentence in reference to the wives used only feminine verbs and pronouns, while this sentences uses masculine. The feminine for the above would be Ankunna and Yutahhirakunna. The sudden change in grammatical gender reference means that it is not about the wives. Similar use of switching subjects after Ayahs are found all throughout the Quran. A great example of this is Surah Haqqah, which does so in nearly every Ayah.

Thirdly, Muhammad said explicitly that wives are not part of Ahlul Bayt:

Sahih Muslim, one of the three most authentic collections in the Sunnah.

Sahih Muslim #31:5920-2: "Hussain Ibn Sabrah asked Zaid Ibn Arqam, "Who are the members of His household? Aren't His wives part of the members of his family?" Thereupon Zaid said, "His wives are members of his family [in a general sense], but (Islamically), the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of zakat is forbidden." Hussain asked, "Who are they?". Upon which Zaid said, "Ali and the offspring of Ali, Aqil and the offspring of Aqil, the offspring of Jaffer, and the offspring of Abbas." Hussain said "These are those for whom the acceptance of zakat is forbidden?" Zaid replied, "Yes."

According to Sahih Muslim, Zaid then expanded on this hadith and stated this:

Hussain Then asked: "Aren't the wives (Of the Prophet) included amongst the members of the household?" He said, "No, by Allah, a woman lives with a man [as his wife] for a certain period; he then divorces her, and she goes back to her parents and her people. The members of his household include his own self, and his kith, and kin, for whom the acceptance of zakat is prohibited." - Sahih Muslim #31:5923

Ali ibn Abu Talib

Before Shia & Sunni Ali is a the one of Alh al-Bayt. Ali is the fourth Sunni Caliph.

2.207

And among men is he who sells his 2:207]

In 622, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina), Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that Muhammad could escape in safety.[5][6][7] This night is called Laylat al-mabit. According to some hadith, a verse was revealed about Ali concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijra which says, "[8]

5.3

Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you.[5:3]

According to Sunni Tafsir this verse was delivered in Farewell Pilgrimage[9] while according to Shia ones it refers to appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib as the successor of Muhammad in pond of Khumm which happened while Muslims returned from Mecca to Medina, few days later.[10]

5.55

Only 5:55]

It is unanimous among only Shia that this verse refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib and was revealed after he had given his ring away to someone in need who had entered the mosque while prayer was in progress.[11][12][13][13][14][15]

13.7

And the Unbelievers say: "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord?" But thou art truly a warner, and to every people a guide. [13:7]

Some Shia sources claim that when this verse was revealed when Mohammad said "I'm the warner and the guide and through you will be guided those who are to be guided."[16]

Muhammad's wives

Khadija

Khadija was Muhammad's first wife. She was a businesswoman and Muhammad was her employee. Muhammad did not marry a second wife until after she died, an event which Muhammad greatly mourned. Muhammad was 50 years old when Khadija died.

Hafsa

These Ayahs are talking to Hafsa and Aisha, two of Muhammad's wives who sought to betray him.

Surah at-Tahrim, Ayahs 3-5:

"When the Prophet confided unto one of his wives a matter, but when she divulged it (unto others) and Allah apprised him therefore, he made known a part of it and avoided a part; so when he informed her of it, said she: ‘Who informed thee of this?’ He said: ‘Informed, me, the All-Knowing, the All-Aware’. If you both (women) repent to Allah, (it is better for you), for your hearts have swerved from the right path and if you supported each other against the Prophet, you should know that Allah is his Protector, and after Him Gabriel and the righteous believers and the angels are his companions and helpers. Happily his Lord if he divorceth you, will give him in your place wives better than you, submissive, faithful, obedient, repentant, prayerful, observers of fast, widows and virgins."

However, despite the "tafseer" (explanation) of the shia's, their explanation of saying that this verse (Surah at-Tahrim, Ayahs 3-5) is meant to be about Hafsa and Aisha, other verses from the Quran clearly contradict and disprove the shia's tafseer about the verse stated above, from Quran;

[33:6] "The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and HIS WIVES are [in the position of] their mothers. And those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah than the [other] believers and the emigrants, except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest]. That was in the Book inscribed."

Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab was married to Zayd ibn Harithah until they divorced and she married Muhammad.

33:36

is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.

Sawda bint Zama

[4:127]
And they ask you a decision about women. Say: God makes known to you His decision concerning them, and that which is recited to you in the Book concerning female orphans whom you do not give what is appointed for them while you desire to marry them, and concerning the weak among children, and that you should deal towards orphans with equity; and whatever good you do, God surely knows it.

Clans

Banu Abd-al-Manaf

A sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.

Generally

102.1-2
"Engage (your) vying in exuberance, until ye come to the graves.".[17]

A'as ibn Wa'il

A'as ibn Wa'il is the father of Amr ibn al-A'as.

108

Entire chapter[18]

Banu Sahm

A sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.

Generally

102.1-2
"Engage (your) vying in exuberance, until ye come to the graves.".[17]

Banu Makhzum

A sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.

Walid ibn al-Mughira

[68:10]-13
"Heed not the type of despicable men,- ready with oaths, A slanderer, going about with calumnies, (Habitually) hindering (all) good, transgressing beyond bounds, deep in sin, Violent (and cruel), with all that, base-born.".[19]

Banu Zuhrah

A sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.

Sa'd ibn Abi-Waqqas

[31:14]
"And We have enjoined man in respect of his parents-- his mother bears him with faintings upon faintings and his weaning takes two years-- saying: Be grateful to Me and to both your parents; to Me is the eventual coming. And if they contend with you that you should associate with Me what you have no knowledge of, do not obey them, and keep company with them in this world kindly, and follow the way of him who turns to Me, then to Me is your return, then will I inform you of what you did--"[20]

Banu Hashim

The Banu Hashim was Muhammads own clan

Generally

26.214
"come out openly and warn the people of your own clan."[21]

Abu Lahab

Abu Lahab was an enemy of Muhammad, and the brother of Muhammad's father. His name means "father of fire" and is one of the three Meccan personal names mentioned in the Quran.(Other two names are Muhammad himself and his friend Zaid)

111.1-5
  1. Perish the two hands of Abû Lahab, and perish he!
  2. His wealth and his children (etc.) will not benefit him!
  3. He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames!
  4. And his wife too, who carries wood (thorns of Sadan which she used to put on the way of the Prophet or use to slander him).
  5. In her neck is a rope of Masad (fire).[22]

Unclassified clan

Akhnas ibn Shariq

[2:104]

Entire chapter.[23]

[2:204]

An incident occurred prior to these verses being revealed. A man named Al-Akhnas ibn Shuriq came to Muhammad to embrace Islam, but as he turned to leave, he happened to pass by a pasture and grazing animals. He set it alight and killed the cattle. This verses express disapproval.[24]

Uqbah ibn Abu Mu'ayt

[25:27]

One sources claims this verse is regarding Uqbah ibn Mu'ayt and Ubay ibn Khalaf.[25]

Ubay ibn Khalaf

[25:27]

One sources claims this verse is regarding Uqbah ibn Mu'ayt and Ubay ibn Khalaf.[25]

[8:17]

One sources stats he was ransomed from after Badr, but was killed by Muhammad himself with a spear in the

Sahaba

Prophet Muhammad's companions.

Zayd ibn Harithah

Zayd was Muhammad's adopted son. He is the only companion of Muhammed whose name appears in the Quran.

[33:37]

And when you said to him to whom Allah had shown favor and to whom you had shown a favor: Keep your wife to yourself and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; and you concealed in your soul what Allah would bring to light, and you feared men, and Allah had a greater right that you should fear Him. But when Zaid had accomplished his want of her, We gave her to you as a wife, so that there should be no difficulty for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when they have accomplished their want of them; and Allah's command shall be performed.

Salman the Persian

Salman was a companion of Muhammad, highly respected by both Shi'a and Sunni

[62:3]

And He (Allah) has sent him (Muhammad) also to other (Muslims).[27]

Notes

  1. Madelung, 1997, pp. 15 and 16
  2. Comparing the Tafsir of various exegetes
  3. Tafseer Mazhari Volume 10 page 34
  4. Tafsir Khazan Volume 7 page 110
  5. Tafsir Kashaf Volume page 485
  6. Tafsir Durre Manthur Volume 6 page 404
  7. Tafsir Ruh al Ma'ani Volume 3 pages 48–49
  8. Tafsir Jalalayn Volume 3 page 29
  9. [3]
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