World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Phalaris arundinacea

Article Id: WHEBN0000722773
Reproduction Date:

Title: Phalaris arundinacea  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of psychoactive plants, Reed (plant), Søften, Phalaris aquatica, Yontocket, California
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Phalaris arundinacea

Phalaris arundinacea

Secure  (NatureServe)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Phalaris
Species: P. arundinacea
Binomial name
Phalaris arundinacea
L.
Phalaris arundinacea in garden of Islington college, Nepal.

Phalaris arundinacea, sometimes known as reed canary grass, is a tall, perennial bunchgrass that commonly forms extensive single-species stands along the margins of lakes and streams and in wet open areas, with a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, northern Africa and North America.[1] Other common names for the plant include gardener's-garters in English, alpiste roseau in French, rohrglanzgras in German, kusa-yoshi in Japanese, caniço-malhado in Portuguese, and hierba cinta and pasto cinto in Spanish.[2]

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Uses 2
  • Ecology 3
  • Chemical properties 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Description

The stems can reach 2 meters in height.[3] The leaf blades are usually green, but may be variegated. The panicles are up to 30 centimeters long.[3] The spikelets are light green, often streaked with darker green or purple.[4] This is a perennial grass which spreads underground by its thick rhizomes.[3]

Uses

A number of cultivars of P. arundinacea have been selected for use as ornamental plants, including variegated (striped) cultivars – sometimes called ribbon grass – such as 'Castor' and 'Feesey'. The latter has a pink tinge to the leaves.[5] When grown, although drought-tolerant, it likes abundant water and can even be grown as an aquatic plant.[5]

Reed canarygrass grows well on poor soils and contaminated industrial sites, and researchers at Teesside University's Contaminated Land & Water Centre have suggested it as the ideal candidate for phytoremediation in improving soil quality and biodiversity at brownfield sites.

The grass can also easily be turned into bricks or pellets for burning in biomass power stations.[6] Furthermore it provides fibers which find use in pulp and papermaking processes.[7]

P. arundinacea is also planted as a hay crop or for forage.

This species of Phalaris may also be used as a source for the psychedelic drugs DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and 5-OH-DMT (bufotenin), as well as Hordenine and 5-MeO-NMT;[8] however, N,N-DMT is considered most desirable. Although the concentrations of these compounds is lower than in other potential sources, such as Psychotria viridis and Mimosa tenuiflora, large enough quantities of the grass can be refined to make an ad hoc ayahuasca brew.

Ecology

In many places, P. arundinacea is an invasive species in wetlands, particularly in disturbed areas. It has been reported as an invasive weed in floodplains, riverside meadows, and other wetland habitat types around the world. When P. arundinacea invades a wetland, it inhibits native vegetation and reduces biological diversity.[9] It alters the entire ecosystem.[10] The grass propagates by seed and rhizome, and once established, is difficult to eradicate.[11]

Chemical properties

Some Phalaris species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage and kill animals.

Leaves of P. arundinacea contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin.[12] Levels of beta-carbolines[13] and hordenine[14] have also been reported.

References

  1. ^ .Phalaris arundinacea Germplasm Resources Information Network.
  2. ^ .Phalaris arundinacea USDA NRCS Plant Guide.
  3. ^ a b c Waggy, Melissa, A. 2010. Phalaris arundinacea. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  4. ^ .Phalaris arundinacea Flora of China.
  5. ^ a b 'Feesey'.picta var. Phalaris arundinacea
  6. ^ Bond, Sam (2010-02-23). "Candidate crops for contaminated land biofuels crop considered". edie.net/crc. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  7. ^ Andersson, B. and E. Lindvall. ) as raw material for production of paper pulp and fuel.Phalaris arundinaceaUse of biomass from reed canary grass ( internationalgrasslands.org.
  8. ^ Wilkinson, S. (1958). "428. 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine: a new indole alkaloid from Phalaris arundinacea L.". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 2079.  
  9. ^ Kim, K. D., et al. (2006). (reed canarygrass) with live willow stakes: A density-dependent response.Phalaris arundinaceaControlling Ecological Engineering 26 219-27.
  10. ^ Lavergne, S. and J. Molofsky. (2004). ) as a biological model in the study of plant invasions.Phalaris arundinaceaReed canary grass ( Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23(5) 415-29.
  11. ^ Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands By Darold P. Batzer, Rebecca R. Sharitz
  12. ^ Tryptamine Carriers FAQ
  13. ^ G. C. Marten, R. M. Jordan and A. W. Hovin; 1976; Biological Significance of Reed Canarygrass Alkaloids and Associated Palatability Variation to Grazing Sheep and Cattle; Agronomy Journal Vol. 68 No. 6, p. 909-914; doi:10.2134/agronj1976.00021962006800060017x
  14. ^ J Edwin Saxton (1974). The Alkaloids: A Review of Chemical Literature: volume 4 (Specialist Periodical Reports). The Chemical Society. p. 130.  

External links

  • Phalaris arundinaceaFlora Europaea:
  • Phalaris arundinaceaUSDA Plants Database:
  • Jepson Manual Treatment - taxonomy and distribution within California
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.