World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pitch pipe


Pitch pipe

Modern set of pitch pipes for guitar tuning

A pitch pipe is a small device used to provide a pitch reference for musicians without absolute pitch. Although it may be described as a musical instrument, it is not typically used to play music as such. Technically, it is a harmonica; however, it lacks many characteristics of harmonicas.


  • Origins 1
  • Modern pitch pipes 2
  • Usage 3
  • Problems 4
  • Brands 5
  • See also 6
  • External links 7
  • Further reading 8


Variable Pitch pipe

The earliest pitch pipes were instruments rather like a recorder, but rather than finger holes, they had a plunger like a slide whistle's (also known as a swanee whistle). The pipe was generally made of wood with a square bore, and the plunger was leather-coated. On this plunger are marked the notes of either the chromatic scale or the diatonic scale, and by setting it to the correct position, the indicated note will be produced when the instrument is blown. Pitch pipes come in all sorts of shapes and sizes.

Pitch pipes of this sort were most often used in the 18th and 19th centuries in churches which had no tuning fork. They are also useful for establishing what pitch standard was being used at a particular place and time.

Modern pitch pipes

Although few look like a pipe, the pitch pipe name is still applied to any device used as a pitch reference. The most common type is a circular free reed aerophone. These are discs with the holes for the reeds around the perimeter and with marked openings for each note, into which the user blows. Inside the pipe, the air flows through a hole in a plate past the selected rectangular metal reed (usually brass). The airflow is modulated by the oscillating reed, then it resonates in an outer sounding chamber. In recent years, electronic pushbutton devices simulating chromatic pitch pipes have become available which are small enough to fit on key chains.


Some pitch pipes are intended for tuning string instruments, and only provide reeds for notes appropriate to a particular instrument. Chromatic pitch pipes are favored by a cappella singers and timpanists. Chromatic pipes most often provide thirteen pitches, each a half step above the previous. By providing all of the notes of a single octave, a singer can start in any key called for in Western music. Different pipes are available for men and women due to the differences in vocal range: male singers most often use F-F pipes, while female singers favor C-C pipes. However, it is particularly notable that the Men's pipe in F is pitched higher than the Women's C pipe. Pipes in other keys are available, but are much more rare.

The singers' normal use of the pipe is to play the initial key note or tonic of the piece to be sung. Less frequently the pipe will be used to play the first sung note of the song, especially where the song begins in unison or with a solo.

In Ethnomusicology, recording a short beep with pitch pipe in ethnographic recordings can be used in playback to determine the playback speed of the Gramophone record or Phonograph cylinder.


The brass reeds in common pitchpipes are subject to work hardening with use, so they gradually change pitch. Because of this, replacement reed plates are sold. Carried in a pocket, a pipe will occasionally pick up small bits of lint which works its way into the narrow space around a reed. This usually requires disassembly of the pipe in order to clean the lint off the reed. To avoid this eventuality many users will use a small holster to carry the pipe.


Acoustic pipes are made by various makers and sold under various brands. Popular chromatic makers include "Performance Plus", "Kratt Master-Key", "Hering", "Menzel", "Pyramid" and "Hohner", mostly made in chrome plated brass. Specialty four-tone models for violin (G < D < A < E) and ukulele (

See also

External links

  • An "online pitch pipe" (recordings of each of the pitches on a free-reed instrument)
  • A zipped downloadable version of the "online pitch pipe" (recordings of each of the pitches on a free-reed instrument) for your cell phone.
  • Five Types of Metal Pitch Pipes, whistle museum (Including free down loads samples)

Further reading

  • Anthony Baines, "The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments" (1992) Page 267, ISBN 0-19-311334-1
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.