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Planulozoa

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Title: Planulozoa  
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Subject: Salinella, ParaHoxozoa, Eumetazoa, Chordate
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Planulozoa

Planulozoa is a proposed clade including the Cnidaria (sea anemones and jellyfish) and the Bilateria (all the more complex animals including flatworms, insects and vertebrates). The clade excludes the Ctenophora (comb jellies).[1][2][3]

Metazoa

Glass sponges



Demosponges



Calcareous sponges

Eumetazoa

Ctenophora (comb jellies)

Planulozoa
Cnidaria

Anthozoa
(sea anemones and corals)

Medusozoa

Hydrozoa
(Hydra, siphonophores, etc.)




Cubozoa
(box jellies)


Staurozoa



"Scyphozoa"
(jellyfish, excluding
Staurozoa)






Placozoa

Bilateria

Myxozoa


Other Bilateria
(more complex)








Family tree of Cnidaria and the origins of animals[4][3][5]

References

  1. ^ Andreas Hejnol & Mark Q. Martindale (2008). "Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian".  
  2. ^ Jaume Baguñà, Pere Martinez, Jordi Paps & Marta Riutort (2008). "Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria".  
  3. ^ a b Andreas Wallberg, Mikael Thollesson, James S. Farris & Ulf Jondelius (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) and the importance of taxonomic sampling".  
  4. ^ A. G. Collins (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of Cnidarian life cycles" ( 
  5. ^ C. Borchiellini, M. Manuel, E. Alivon, N. Boury-Esnault, J. Vacelet & Y. Le Parco (2001). "Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa".  
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