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Pollution

The litter problem on the coast of Guyana, 2010

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Contents

  • Ancient cultures 1
  • Official acknowledgement 2
  • Modern awareness 3
  • Forms of pollution 4
  • Pollutants 5
  • Sources and causes 6
  • Effects 7
    • Human health 7.1
    • Environment 7.2
    • Environmental health information 7.3
  • Regulation and monitoring 8
  • Pollution control 9
    • Practices 9.1
    • Pollution control devices 9.2
  • Perspectives 10
  • Greenhouse gases and global warming 11
  • Most polluted places in the developing world 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • External links 15

Ancient cultures

  • OEHHA proposition 65 list
  • National Toxicology Program – from USA National Institutes of Health. Reports and studies on how pollutants affect people
  • TOXNET – NIH databases and reports on toxicology
  • TOXMAP – Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs
  • EPA.gov – manages Superfund sites and the pollutants in them (CERCLA). Map the EPA Superfund
  • Toxic Release Inventory – tracks how much waste USA companies release into the water and air. Gives permits for releasing specific quantities of these pollutants each year. Map EPA's Toxic Release Inventory
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry – Top 20 pollutants, how they affect people, what USA industries use them and the products in which they are found
  • Toxicology Tutorials from the National Library of Medicine – resources to review human toxicology.
  • Pollution Information from, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • World's Worst Polluted Places 2007, according to the Blacksmith Institute
  • The World's Most Polluted Places at Time.com (a division of Time Magazine)
  • Chelyabinsk: The Most Contaminated Spot on the Planet Documentary Film by Slawomir Grünberg (1996)
  • Kids' Lower IQ Scores Linked To Prenatal Pollution by Lindsey Tanner, The Huffington Post, July 20, 2009
  • Nieman Reports | Tracking Toxics When the Data Are Polluted

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

External links

  1. ^ "Pollution - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  2. ^ Spengler, John D.; Sexton, K. A. (1983). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective".  
  3. ^ Hong, Sungmin; et al. (1996). "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice".  
  4. ^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). """London's Historic "Pea-Soupers.  
  5. ^ "Deadly Smog". PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  6. ^ James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. "History of the Clean Air Act". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2006-02-14. 
  7. ^ 1952: London fog clears after days of chaos (BBC News)
  8. ^ John Tarantino. "Environmental Issues". The Environmental Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  9. ^ Lenssen, "Nuclear Waste: The Problem that Won't Go Away", Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1991: 15.
  10. ^ Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
  11. ^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972
  12. ^ Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)
  13. ^ State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page)
  14. ^ Pollution and Society Marisa Buchanan and Carl Horwitz, University of Michigan
  15. ^ http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_tp20.html
  16. ^ a b Beychok, Milton R. (1967).  
  17. ^ Silent Spring, R Carlson, 1962
  18. ^ "Pollution". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009.
  19. ^ "Chapter 23 – Solid, Toxic, and Hazardous Waste"
  20. ^ " maps zoom in on greenhouse gas sourcesCO
    2
    Revolutionary ". Purdue University. April 7, 2008.
  21. ^ "Waste Watcher" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  22. ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom. August 31, 2006. The Boston Globe.
  23. ^ " emitterCO
    2
    China overtakes US as world's biggest ". Guardian.co.uk. June 19, 2007.
  24. ^ "Ranking of the world's countries by 2008 per capita fossil-fuel CO2 emission rates.". CDIAC. 2008.
  25. ^ "Global Warming Can Be Stopped, World Climate Experts Say". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  26. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (January 1987). "A data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators". Atmospheric Environment 21 (1): 29–36.  
  27. ^ World Resources Institute: August 2008 Monthly Update: Air Pollution's Causes, Consequences and Solutions Submitted by Matt Kallman on Wed, 2008-08-20 18:22. Retrieved on April 17, 2009
  28. ^ waterhealthconnection.org Overview of Waterborne Disease Trends By Patricia L. Meinhardt, MD, MPH, MA, Author. Retrieved on April 16, 2009
  29. ^ Pennsylvania State University > Potential Health Effects of Pesticides. by Eric S. Lorenz. 2007.
  30. ^ "Indian Pediatrics". Retrieved May 2008. 
  31. ^ "UNICEF ROSA - Young child survival and development - Water and Sanitation". Retrieved 2011. 
  32. ^ Isalkar, Umesh (29 July 2014). "Over 1,500 lives lost to diarrhoea in 2013, delay in treatment blamed". The Times of India.  
  33. ^ "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". The New York Times. August 26, 2007.
  34. ^ Air Pollution Linked to 1.2 Million Premature Deaths in China
  35. ^ Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World, Report Says. National Geographic News. July 9, 2007.
  36. ^ David, Michael, and Caroline. "Air Pollution – Effects". Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  37. ^ "SIS.nlm.nih.gov". SIS.nlm.nih.gov. 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  38. ^ "Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov". Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  39. ^  
  40. ^ The 'Solution' to Pollution Is Still 'Dilution', archived from the original on 2008-01-30, retrieved 2013-07-22 
  41. ^ "What is required". Clean Ocean Foundation. 2001. Retrieved 2006-02-14. 
  42. ^ "The Mixture Rule under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act". U.S. Dept. of Energy. 1999. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  43. ^ World Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Table 1, Report DOE/EIA-0573, 2004, Energy Information Administration)
  44. ^ Carbon dioxide emissions chart (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration's tabulated data)
  45. ^ The World's Most Polluted Places: The Top Ten of the Dirty Thirty, archived from the original on 2007-10-11, retrieved 2013-12-10 

References

Air pollution


Soil contamination


Water pollution


Other


See also

The Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia.[45]

Most polluted places in the developing world

Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.

Historical and projected CO2 emissions by country.
Source: Energy Information Administration.[43][44]

Greenhouse gases and global warming

Yet in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. One such superseding principle is contained in modern hazardous waste laws in developed countries, as the process of diluting hazardous waste to make it non-hazardous is usually a regulated treatment process.[42] Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases can be confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers.

Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. But these are often no longer the case. Furthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or infeasible. In addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence.

"The solution to pollution is dilution", is a dictum which summarizes a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful.[40][41] It is well-suited to some other modern, locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management. But it assumes that the dilutant is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases.

For humankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. Short of survival, human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure (e.g. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PELs), toxicology (e.g. LD50), and medicine (e.g. medication and radiation doses).

The earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival.

Perspectives

Pollution control devices

Practices

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff.

A Mobile Pollution Check Vehicle in India.
Gas nozzle with vapor recovery
A litter trap catches floating waste in the Yarra River, east-central Victoria, Australia

Pollution control

To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.

Regulation and monitoring

TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.

an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web. [38] at the [37] The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)

Environmental health information

Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:

Environment

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are at additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.

Adverse respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 500 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet,[30][31] Over ten million people in India fell ill with waterborne illnesses in 2013, and 1,535 people died, most of them children.[32] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.[33] A 2010 analysis estimated that 1.2 million people died prematurely each year in China because of air pollution.[34] The WHO estimated in 2007 that air pollution causes half a million deaths per year in India.[35] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the United States could be over 50,000.[36]

Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.[27][28][29]

Human health

Effects

In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur.

Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium–found in rechargeable batteries, and lead–found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD.[26]

In February 2007, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the work of 2,500 scientists, economists, and policymakers from more than 120 countries, said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).[25]

An industrial area, with a power plant, south of Yangzhou's downtown, China

About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.[18] The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.[19] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO
2
,[20] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[21][22] In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO
2
,[23] while still far behind based on per capita pollution - ranked 78th among the world's nations.[24]

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution.[12][13][14] China, United States, Russia, India[15] Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[16] petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides[17]

Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.[11]

Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.

Sources and causes

A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.

Pollutants

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:

The Lachine Canal in Montreal Canada, is polluted.

Forms of pollution

Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.

A much more recently discovered problem is the 5 Gyres have researched the pollution and, along with artists like Marina DeBris, are working toward publicizing the issue.

International catastrophes such as the wreck of the PBDEs and PFCs among others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use.

Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, sometimes near inhabited areas, especially in the earlier stages of their development. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. One legacy of nuclear testing before most forms were banned has been significantly raised levels of background radiation.

The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay, named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth, served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Second place may go to the area of Chelyabinsk U.S.S.R. (see reference below) as the "Most polluted place on the planet".[9]

Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfund legislation of 1980. Legal proceedings in the 1990s helped bring to light hexavalent chromium releases in California—the champions of whose victims became famous. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.

Smog Pollution in Taiwan
[8].National Environmental Policy Act and the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Noise Control ActPollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the

Pollution became a popular issue after World War II, due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people.[7] This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956.

Modern awareness

It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.[6]

King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem.[4][5] But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward.

Official acknowledgement

but at that time the pollution was comparatively small and could be handled by nature. [3]

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