World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0002646842
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pommer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Shawm, Hirtenschalmei, Baritone sarrusophone, Cornamuse, Alto sarrusophone
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Pommer or bombard (French hautbois; Italian bombardo, bombardone) describes the alto, tenor, bass, and contrabass members of the shawm or Schalmey family, which are similar in function to the modern cor anglais, bass oboe, bassoon, and contrabassoon, although the bassoon family's direct ancestor was the dulcian/curtal family.


The name "Pommer" arose in Germany, named after artillery, and was large and powerful in tone. The shawm family was the prototypical consort instrument, built in seven sizes from high soprano to great bass, and an ensemble of double reed shawms was capable of producing a grand, full, and balanced sound. These instruments remained popular outdoor instruments and ceremonial instruments up until the development of the more refined and eloquent oboe family by the Philidors and Hotteterres in France during the middle of the 17th century. The cromorne family, not to be confused with the crumhorn, was a sort of transitional instrument that remained in use after the oboe, tenor oboe, and bassoon had been developed. The basse de cromorne functioned as the spiritual descendant of the old bass pommer, and its powerful, reedy, organlike tone has only recently been rediscovered and can be heard on a couple of recordings of French Baroque music, played by Jeremie Papasergio.

The main difference to the casual observer between the

The great contrabass pommer was 9 ft (2.7 m). long without the crook and reed, which, however, were bent downwards. It had five open fingerholes and five keys working inside a perforated case; in order to bring the holes within reach of the finger, they were cut obliquely through the tube. The compass extended from F below 8 ft (2.4 m). C to E or F in the bass stave, two octaves in all. The other members of the family were the bass Pommer, from 8 ft (2.4 m). C to middle C, corresponding to the modern bassoon or fagotto; the tenor or basset Pommer, a fifth higher in pitch; the alto pommer or nicolo, a fourth or a fifth above the tenor; and the high alto, or Klein Alt Pommer, an octave higher than the tenor,


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.