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Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

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Title: Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark  
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Subject: Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Alice of Battenberg, Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark, Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark, Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark (1906–1969)
Collection: 1882 Births, 1944 Deaths, Burials at Tatoi Palace Royal Cemetery, Danish Princes, Greek Military Personnel of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), Greek Princes, Hellenic Army Generals, Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, House of Glücksburg (Greece), Knights of the Elephant, Knights of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, Recipients of the Order of St. Andrew, Recipients of the Order of the Black Eagle
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Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

Prince Andrew
Portrait by Philip de László, 1913
Born (1882-02-02)2 February 1882
O.S.: 20 January 1882
Athens, Greece
Died 3 December 1944(1944-12-03) (aged 62)
Monte Carlo, Monaco
Burial Royal Cemetery, Tatoi Palace, Greece
Spouse Princess Alice of Battenberg
Issue Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Theodora, Margravine of Baden
Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse
Princess Sophie
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Father George I of Greece
Mother Olga Konstantinova of Russia
Religion Greek Orthodox

Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (Andreas; 2 February 1882 (Olga Constantinovna of Russia. He was a grandson of Christian IX of Denmark and father of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

He began military training at an early age, and was commissioned as an officer in the Greek army. His command positions were real appointments rather than honorary, and he saw service in the Balkan Wars. In 1913, his father was assassinated and Andrew's elder brother, Constantine, became king. Dissatisfaction with his brother's neutrality policy during World War I led to his brother's abdication and most of the royal family, including Andrew, was exiled. On their return a few years later, Andrew saw service in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), but the war went badly for Greece, and Andrew was blamed, in part, for the loss of Greek territory. He was exiled for a second time in 1922, and spent most of the rest of his life in France.

By 1930, he was estranged from his wife, Princess Alice of Battenberg. His only son, Prince Philip, served in the British navy during World War II, while all four of his daughters were married to Germans, three of whom had Nazi connections. Separated from his wife and son by the effects of the war, Andrew died in Monte Carlo in 1944. He had seen neither of them since 1939.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Marriage and children 2
  • Early career 3
  • Exile from Greece 4
  • Titles, styles, honours and arms 5
    • Titles and styles 5.1
  • Ancestors 6
  • Notes and sources 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9

Early life

Prince Andrew was born in

  • Greece, Prince Andrew of (1930). Towards Disaster: The Greek Army in Asia Minor in 1921 London: John Murray.

Further reading

  • Brandreth, Gyles (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Century. ISBN 0-7126-6103-4
  • Clogg, Richard (1979). A Short History of Modern Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22479-9
  • Heald, Tim (1991). The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-54607-7
  • Van der Kiste, John (1994). Kings of the Hellenes. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-0525-5
  • Vickers, Hugo. (2000). Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-13686-5

References

  1. ^ a b Vickers, p. 309
  2. ^ Brandreth, p. 49
  3. ^ The Times (London), Monday 4 December 1922, p. 17
  4. ^ Heald, p. 18
  5. ^ Brandreth, p. 48
  6. ^ Heald, pp. 18–19
  7. ^ Brandreth, p. 49 and Vickers, p. 52
  8. ^ The Times (London), Thursday 8 October 1903, p. 3
  9. ^ Clogg, pp. 97–99
  10. ^ Brandreth, p. 52
  11. ^ The Times (London), Wednesday 19 March 1913, p. 6
  12. ^ Marquis of Ruvigny, The Titled Nobility of Europe (Harrison and Sons, London, 1914) p. 71
  13. ^ The Times (London), Friday 23 November 1917, p. 10
  14. ^ Brandreth, p. 55 and Van der Kiste, pp. 96 ff.
  15. ^ Brandreth, p. 56; Heald, p. 25
  16. ^ Heald, p. 26
  17. ^ Quoted in Brandreth, p. 59 and Heald, p. 27
  18. ^ Brandreth, p. 59; Heald, p. 27
  19. ^ Brandreth, pp. 59–60; Heald, pp. 27–28
  20. ^ The Times (London), Friday 1 December 1922, p. 12
  21. ^ The Times (London), Tuesday 5 December 1922, p. 12
  22. ^ Brandreth, p. 63 and Vickers, pp. 176–178
  23. ^ Brandreth, p. 64
  24. ^ Brandreth, p. 67
  25. ^ Brandreth, p. 69 and Vickers, p. 309
  26. ^ The Times (London), Monday 27 January 1936, p. 9
  27. ^ The Times (London), Wednesday 20 May 1936, p. 15
  28. ^ Vickers, p. 273
  29. ^ Vickers, pp. 293–295
  30. ^ Brandreth, p. 177; Heald, p. 76

Notes and sources

Ancestors

  • 2 February 1882 – 3 December 1944: His Royal Highness Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

Titles and styles

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Andrew was at first buried in the Russian Orthodox church in Nice, but in 1946 his remains were transferred, by Greek cruiser, to the royal cemetery at Tatoi Palace, near Athens.[30]

At the start of World War II, he found himself essentially trapped in Vichy France, while his son, Prince Philip, fought on the side of the British. They were unable to see or even correspond with one another. Two of Andrew's surviving sons-in-law fought on the German side: Prince Christoph of Hesse was a member of the Nazi Party and the Waffen-SS, and Berthold, Margrave of Baden, was invalided out of the German army in 1940 after an injury in France.[29] For five years, Andrew saw neither his wife nor his son. He died in the Metropole Hotel, Monte Carlo, Monaco of heart failure and arterial sclerosis just as the war was ending.[1]

On the French Riviera, Andrew lived in a small apartment, or hotel rooms, or on board a yacht with his lady friend, Countess Andrée de La Bigne.[25] His marriage to Alice was effectively over, and after her recovery and release, she returned to Greece. In 1936, his sentence of exile was quashed by emergency laws, which also restored land and annuities to the King.[26] Andrew returned to Greece for a brief visit that May.[27] The following year, his daughter Cécile, son-in-law and two of his grandchildren were killed in an air accident at Ostend; he met Alice for the first time in six years at the funeral, which was also attended by Hermann Göring.[28]

In 1930, Andrew published a book entitled Towards Disaster: The Greek Army in Asia Minor in 1921, in which he defended his actions during the Battle of the Sakarya, but he essentially lived a life of enforced retirement, despite only being in his forties.[23] During their time in exile the family became more and more dispersed. Alice suffered a nervous breakdown and was institutionalized in Switzerland. Their daughters married and settled in Germany, separated from Andrew, and Philip was sent to school in England, where he was brought up by his mother's British relatives. Andrew went to live in the South of France.[24]

Dissatisfaction with the progress of the war led to the Saint-Cloud on the outskirts of Paris.[22]

[19] Andrew was given command of the

For three years, Constantine's second son, Alexander, was king of Greece, until his early death from the after effects of a monkey bite. Constantine was restored to the throne, and Andrew was once again reinstated in the army, this time as a major-general.[15] The family took up residence at Mon Repos.

Styles of
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Reference style His Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Sir

Exile from Greece

During World War I, he continued to visit Britain, despite veiled accusations in the British House of Commons that he was a German agent.[13] His brother, King Constantine, followed a neutrality policy, but the democratically elected government of Venizelos supported the Allies. By June 1917, the King's neutrality policy had become so untenable that he abdicated and the Greek royal family were forced into exile. For the next few years, most of the Greek royal family lived in Switzerland.[14]

A few years later, at the outbreak of the Balkan Wars in 1912, Andrew was reinstated in the army as a lieutenant colonel in the 3rd Cavalry Regiment,[10] and placed in command of a field hospital.[11] During the war, his father was assassinated and Andrew inherited a villa on the island of Corfu, Mon Repos. In 1914, Andrew (like many European princes) held honorary military posts in both the German and Russian empires, as well as Prussian, Russian, Danish and Italian knighthoods.[12]

In 1909, the political situation in Greece led to a coup d'état, as the Athens government refused to support the Cretan parliament, which had called for the union of Crete (still nominally part of the Ottoman Empire) with the Greek mainland. A group of dissatisfied officers formed a Greek nationalist Military League that eventually led to Prince Andrew's resignation from the army and the rise to power of Eleftherios Venizelos.[9]

Prince Andrew (left), with his older brothers, the Crown Prince Constantine and Prince Nicholas

Early career

Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Margarita 18 April 1905 24 April 1981 Married 1931, to Gottfried, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Princess Theodora 30 May 1906 16 October 1969 Married 1931, to Prince Berthold, Margrave of Baden
Princess Cecilie 22 June 1911 16 November 1937 Married 1931, to Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse
Princess Sophie 26 June 1914 24 November 2001 Married firstly in 1930, to Prince George William of Hanover
Prince Philip 10 June 1921 Married 1947, to Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (later Queen Elizabeth II)

Prince and Princess Andrew had five children, all of whom later had children of their own.

In 1902, Prince Andrew met Princess Alice of Battenberg at the coronation of her grand-uncle and his aunt's husband, King Edward VII, in London. Princess Alice was a daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. They fell in love, and the following year, on 6 October 1903, Andrew married Alice in a civil wedding at Darmstadt.[7] The following day two religious wedding services were performed: one Lutheran in the Evangelical Castle Church, and another Greek Orthodox in the Russian Chapel on the Mathildenhöhe.[8]

Marriage and children

[6] Andrew joined the army as a cavalry officer in May 1901.[5] Despite his short-sightedness,[4].Panagiotis Danglis and was given additional private tuition in military subjects by [3] He attended cadet school and staff college at Athens,[2] He also spoke German, Danish, Russian and French.[1]

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