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Qazvin

Qazvin
قزوین
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
Official seal of Qazvin
Seal
Qazvin is located in Iran
Qazvin
Coordinates:
Country  Iran
Province Qazvin
County Qazvin
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • Mayor Ramin Soltanzadeh
Elevation 1,278 m (4,193 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 381,598
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IDST (UTC+4:30)
Area code(s) 028
Website .ir.qazvinwww

Qazvin (; Persian: قزوین‎‎, IPA: , also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Persian Empire and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.[1]

Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya.

Contents

  • History 1
  • People 2
  • Climate 3
  • Main sights 4
  • Economy 5
    • Colleges and universities 5.1
    • Modern towers 5.2
    • Shopping complexes 5.3
    • Bridges 5.4
    • Famous hotels 5.5
    • Major parks 5.6
    • Hypermarkets 5.7
  • Transportation 6
  • Sport 7
  • Notable Qazvinis 8
    • Pre-Modern time 8.1
    • Modern time 8.2
    • Notable people buried in Qazvin 8.3
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

History

Shah Tahmasp I (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire.
Peighambariyeh, burial place of four Jewish saints: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

The city was a former capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids.[2] It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history.

Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.

The city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur (shad can be read as 'happy'), when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.

Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of Iranian history. It was captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Hulagu Khan (13th century). After the Ottoman capture of Tabriz, Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that Qazvin retained for half a century until Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan.[2]

In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade volume grew. Its bazaars were enlarged.[3] In the middle of the century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre of Babis occurred in Qazvin in 1847.[4]

In the second half of the 19th century Qazvin was one of the centers of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here. From 1893 this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction in Persia which connected Qazvin by roads to Tehran and Hamadan. The company built a hospital and the St. Nicolas Church.

In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce.[5] The 1921 Persian coup d'etat that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched from Qazvin.

It became a state in 2001.

In Autumn 2015 portions of Qazvin were struck by a meteorite.[6]

People

The majority of the people of the province and the city of Qazvin are Persians. The majority language is Persian with a Qazvini accent.[7] Other languages include Tati (in Takestan), Romani, Luri, Azarbaijani.[7]

Climate

Climate data for Qazvin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
7.6
(45.7)
13.7
(56.7)
20.0
(68)
25.9
(78.6)
32.2
(90)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
30.9
(87.6)
23.1
(73.6)
15.4
(59.7)
8.1
(46.6)
21.0
(69.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.7
(35.1)
6.4
(43.5)
10.6
(51.1)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
16.9
(62.4)
12.9
(55.2)
7.8
(46)
2.9
(37.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
6.8
(44.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.5
(1.752)
40.8
(1.606)
52.1
(2.051)
41.0
(1.614)
34.5
(1.358)
5.9
(0.232)
1.2
(0.047)
1.9
(0.075)
0.8
(0.031)
21.7
(0.854)
27.8
(1.094)
44.0
(1.732)
316.2
(12.446)
Average precipitation days 10.5 10.1 13.3 13.3 12.7 4.5 2.4 2.3 2.0 7.7 7.9 9.7 96.4
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

Main sights

Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area.

Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehelsotoon (Kolah Farangi) mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin.

After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools. They include:

  • Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin
  • Heydarieh mosque
  • Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavieh's monarchy era.
  • Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present day form is attributed to the Seljukian era.
  • Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
  • Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
  • Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried.[8][9][10]
  • Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
  • Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani.
  • Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
  • Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
  • Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
  • Shazdeh Hosein Shrine (location: ); a c.15C CE shrine to a c.9C CE Shiite saint.
  • Aminiha Hosseiniyeh
The Russian Church of Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of Islamic Azad University of Qazvin.

About 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, and Abu Mansur Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the Kharraqan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first monuments in Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered dome. Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.

Qazvin has three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall) and a water reservoir. St. Nicholas church was built in 1904 by the Russian Company for Roads in Persia which had its headquarter here. The church was in use until being decommissioned in 1984 because the community of Russian emigres in Qazvin did not exist any more. The iconostasis and bell was removed to Tehran and the building handed over to the Iranian government which keeps it available to the public as a historic monument. In front of the church is a 1906 memorial to a Russian road engineer.[11]

Economy

A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran–Iraq War.

Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.

Colleges and universities

Qazvin has several institutes of higher education:

Modern towers

Some famous residential towers are: Punak (536 units), Aseman, Elahieh, Bademestan (440 units in 17 floors) and Tejarat tower with 28 floors.

Shopping complexes

  • City Star in Khayam Street
  • Ferdowsi in Ferdowsi Street
  • Iranian in Adl Street
  • Narvan in Ferdowsi Street

Bridges

  • Naderi
  • Molasadra
  • Ertebatat
  • Persian Gulf (Khalij Fars)
  • Abotorabi
  • Nasr
  • Motahari
  • Imam Ali
  • Rajaei

Famous hotels

Major parks

  • Shohada
  • Dehkhoda
  • Beheshti
  • Fadak (Barajin)
  • Mellat
  • Al-Ghadir
  • Afarinesh

Hypermarkets

Transportation

Qazvin is served by Qazvin railway station.

Sport

Qazvin is a well-known city because of its famous athletes. The city has highly focused on athletic teams along recent years. Techmash is a basketball team which entered Iranian Basketball Super League in 2013.

Notable Qazvinis

Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. This is the Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

There have been an abundance of known people who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. These include:

Pre-Modern time

Modern time

Notable people buried in Qazvin

  • Uwais Qarni: a celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been killed here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin.
  • Ahmad Ghazali: famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was buried beside Shahzadeh Hossein.
  • Ali Ibn Shazan: great scholar of the fifth century.
  • Shahzadeh Hossein: Shiite saint.

See also

Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921. Today this building is referred to as Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

References

  1. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/iran-qazvin.php
  2. ^ a b Iran (5th ed., 2008), by Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott, p. 28, Lonely Planet Publications, ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1
  3. ^ "Qazvin" in Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 435
  4. ^ http://www.momen.org/relstud/qazvin.htm
  5. ^  
  6. ^ http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2015/08/02/large-meteorite-impacts-iran-causing-serious-damage-to-qazvin-numerous-towns-affected/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+adorraeli%2FtsEq+%28The+Watchers+-+watching+the+world+evolve+and+transform%29
  7. ^ a b The official Media from Qazvin- February 10-2010
  8. ^ Arash Nooraghayee
  9. ^ iranian.com: Nima Kasraie, Qazvin water reservoirs
  10. ^ Peighambarieh Mausoleum in Qazvin: Burial place of Israeli prophets
  11. ^ РУССКАЯ ПРАВОСЛАВНАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ В ПЕРСИИ - ИРАНЕ (1597-2001 гг.) Игумен Александр (Заркешев) Санкт-Петербург 2002 - Russian Orthodox Church in Persia-Iran 1597-2001, by abbot Alexander Zarkeshev, St Peterburg 2002, pp 70f and 110; the church is sometimes referred to as "Kantur" church from the name of the area where it stands
  12. ^ qiau.ac.ir
  13. ^ Raja University
  14. ^ afshbq.ac.ir
  15. ^ kar.ac.ir

External links

  • Satellite Picture by Google Maps
  • FallingRain Map - elevation = 1285 m (Red dots are railways)
  • towers profile
Preceded by
Tabriz
Capital of Iran (Persia)
1555–1598
Succeeded by
Isfahan
Preceded by
Tabriz
Capital of Safavid dynasty
1555–1598
Succeeded by
Isfahan
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