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RAR-related orphan receptor

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Title: RAR-related orphan receptor  
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Subject: NeuroD, EMX homeogene, NOBOX, Winged-helix transcription factors, Early growth response proteins
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RAR-related orphan receptor

RAR-related orphan receptor A (alpha)
Symbol RORA
Alt. symbols RZRA, ROR1, ROR2, ROR3, NR1F1
Entrez 6095
HUGO 10258
OMIM 600825
PDB 1N83
RefSeq NM_002943
UniProt P35398
Other data
Locus Chr. 15 q21-q22
RAR-related orphan receptor B (beta)
Symbol RORB
Alt. symbols RZRB, NR1F2, ROR-BETA
Entrez 6096
HUGO 10259
OMIM 601972
RefSeq NM_006914
UniProt Q92753
Other data
Locus Chr. 9 q22
RAR-related orphan receptor C (gamma)
Symbol RORC
Alt. symbols RZRG, RORG, NR1F3, TOR
Entrez 6097
HUGO 10260
OMIM 602943
RefSeq NM_005060
UniProt P51449
Other data
Locus Chr. 1 q21

The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.[1][2] There are three forms of ROR, ROR-α, , and and each is encoded by a separate gene (RORA, RORB, and RORC respectively). The RORs are somewhat unusual in that they appear to bind as monomers to hormone response elements as opposed to the majority of other nuclear receptors which bind as dimers.[3]


Melatonin has been reported to be the endogenous ligand for ROR-α while CGP 52608 has been identified as a ROR-α selective synthetic ligand.[4] However X-ray crystallographic (​ and ) and functional data both suggest that cholesterol or a cholesterol derivative may be the endogenous ligand.[5]

In contrast, all-trans retinoic acid binds with high affinity to ROR-β and -γ but not ROR-α.[6]


The three forms of RORs fulfill a number of critical roles[7] including:


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