World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Releasing hormone

Article Id: WHEBN0002143595
Reproduction Date:

Title: Releasing hormone  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Four Fs (evolution), Growth-hormone-releasing hormone, Vesicle fusion, Hypothalamus, Neuroendocrinology
Collection: Hormones, Neuroendocrinology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Releasing hormone

A releasing hormone or releasing factor is a hormone whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones. These are also called hypophysiotropic or hypothalamic hormones. The use of the term factor was employed for some time pending the establishment of the molecular structure of the hormones. When this had been fully established the hormones were referred to as releasing hormones.[1] The main releasing hormones secreted by the hypothalamus are:

Two other factors are also classed as releasing hormones, although they in fact inhibit pituitary hormone release

For example, TRH is released from the hypothalamus in response to low levels of secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. The TSH in turn is under feedback control by the thyroid hormones T4 and T3. When the levels of TSH are too high, they feed back on the brain to shut down the secretion of TRH. Synthetic TRH is also used by physicians as a test of TSH reserve in the pituitary gland as it should stimulate the release of TSH and prolactin from this gland.

Releasing hormones are sometimes known as liberins. For example, TRH may be known as thyroliberin. Inhibiting hormones may be known as statins. For example, dopamine (which inhibits prolactin release) may be called prolactostatin. [2]

Contents

  • Mechanism 1
  • Notable researchers 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Mechanism

Releasing hormones increase (or, in case of inhibitory factors, decrease) the intracellular concentration of calcium (Ca2+), resulting in vesicle fusion of the respective primary hormone.

For GnRH, TRH and GHRH the increase in Ca2+ is achieved by the releasing hormone coupling and activating G protein coupled receptors coupled to the Gq alpha subunit, activating the IP3/DAG pathway to increase Ca2+.[3] For GHRH, however, this is a minor pathway, the main one being the cAMP dependent pathway. [4]

Notable researchers

Roger Guillemin and Andrew W. Schally were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1977 for their contributions to understanding "the peptide hormone production of the brain"; these scientists independently first isolated TRH and GnRH and then identified their structures.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Guillemin, Roger. Hypothalamic hormones aka hypothalamic releasing factors. J Endocrinol Jan 1 2005 184 11-28 doi.10.1677/joe.1.05883
  2. ^ http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/misc/phorm.html
  3. ^ Page 237 in: Costanzo, Linda S. (2007). Physiology. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  
  4. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2003). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1300.  
  5. ^ Guillemin R. Hypothalamic hormones a.k.a. hypothalamic releasing factors. J Endocrinol 2005;184:11-28. Fulltext. doi:10.1677/joe.1.05883 PMID 15642779.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.