World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Romanian Television

Societatea Română de Televiziune
Type Broadcast television network
Country Romania
Availability International
Motto "Imaginea timpului tău"
("The Image of your times")
Owner Romanian State (The Government of Romania)
Key people
Stelian Tănase, President and General Chairman
Launch date
31 December 1956
Former names
Radioteleviziunea Românǎ
(1956-1990; when it was the only radio-tv company in the country)
Official website
www.tvr.ro

Televiziunea Română (Romanian pronunciation: [1]), more commonly referred to as TVR , is the short name for Societatea Românǎ de Televiziune (Romanian Television Corporation); acronym: SRTV. SRTV is the Romanian public television. It operates six channels: TVR1, TVR2, TVR3, TVR Cultural, TVR Info, TVRi and TVR HD, along with six regional studios in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Iași, Timișoara, Craiova and Târgu Mureș. Of the regional studios of TVR ("studiouri teritoriale") only TVR Cluj broadcasts independently (terrestrial and via cable) all over Transylvania. The other broadcast usually at the same time on TVR2 and sometimes on TVR1.

TVR1 has a total national coverage of 99.8% and TVR2 has 91% coverage — all of the other channels and networks cover only densely populated areas. Even though it does not have the largest audience, (Pro TV and Antena 1, two private networks, consistently get higher ratings in the urban market segment), it offers a wider variety of services, including webcasts and international viewing.

Contents

  • History 1
    • The beginnings 1.1
    • During the Ceaușescu era 1.2
    • After December 1989 1.3
  • Structure 2
  • Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2006 3
  • Funding and accusations 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

History

The beginnings

TVR was established in 1956, in Bucharest and had its first broadcast on 31 December from a little building (a deserted cinema studio) on Molière Street no. 2.

During the Ceaușescu era

TVR moved in 1969 to a new building, the specially built television center on the Dorobanților Avenue.

A second channel, TVR2, was created in 1968 (at that time it was simply called "Programul 2", the second channel and the old TVR became the first channel, "Programul 1"). TVR2 was suspended from 1985, due to the "energy saving programme" initiated by Nicolae Ceaușescu and TVR1 became TVR again, becoming the sole television station in Romania until the fall of communism in 1989.

In 1983, TVR introduced color television. Although the rest of the Eastern Bloc countries adopted the Soviet-backed SECAM system, TVR chose to implement the PAL system.

Propaganda TV program from 1986, titled Nicolae Ceaușescu Era.

Due to the same "energy saving programme" between 1985 and 1989, the TVR schedule was severely limited to only about two hours per day, between 20:00 and 22:00, most of which were dedicated to the cult of personalities of Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena; with an exception on Saturdays, from 13:00 to 15:00 and 19:00 to 22:30 and Sundays (the same program as Saturdays, but with children's programs between 11:30 and 12:30). The two hours of programming were half propaganda and half general entertainment:

Later, the programs increased to three hours per day during the workweek (from 19:00 to 22:00).

Main building of the TVR in Bucharest at night (Nov 2006).

After December 1989

During the Revolution of December 1989, TVR was an important focal point of the events. Rebels occupied the TVR building, in the afternoon of December 22 and announced that the Ceaușescus had fled. TVR changed its name to "Televiziunea Română Liberă" (TVRL), "Free Romanian Television". On 17 February 1990, TVR2 resumed broadcasting and TVRL became TVR1.

But TVR would remain a propaganda instrument in the hands of the newly created National Salvation Front (FSN), made up mostly of former second-rank Communists. FSN used TVRL, by far the most widely penetrating information source at that time in Romania, to discredit protesters who were demanding a Communist-free government, denigrating them as "fascists". This culminated with the June 1990 riots in central Bucharest, crushed by the miners called in by president Ion Iliescu. After the riots ended, Iliescu was shown on TV congratulating the miners for "restoring law and order". A little while later, following protests from civil society, TVRL abandoned the "L", the designation "Free" and reverted to its previous name of TVR.

After 1990, lacking any strategy, TVR fell into a deep crisis of identity. TVR changed its identity several times without any particular reason. The crisis intensified after 1996.

On 1 January 1993, TVR, as a part of Radioteleviziunea Româna (RTVR), was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union.

In 1995, TVRi was launched on 1 December, Great Union Day, the national holiday. In 1998, TVR International was renamed "TV Romania International", with a completely different identity.

In 2001, TVR2 changed its identity, logo and presentation for the fourth time. The same year, after three "rebrandings", TVR1 became "TV Romania 1". The new "Romania 1" changed its identity, including the channel logo, three times in only two years.

In 2002, TVR Cultural was launched.

In 2003, the management started a controversial rebranding (a new identity was created by the British agency, English & Pockett). On 11 June 2004, all channels were renamed "TVR" and received the same identity.

In October 2007, during its prime-time newscast, TVR aired a video showing

  • TVR official website
  • (Romanian) Six TVR journalists accuse censorship (Ziua, 8 December 2004)

External links

  1. ^ http://dexonline.ro/search.php?lexemId=57040
  2. ^ Pippa Norris, Public Sentinel: News Media & Governance Reform, p.269-70. World Bank Publications, 2010. ISBN 0-8213-8200-4.
  3. ^ http://sport.hotnews.ro/stiri-fotbal-2701681-tvr-transmite-champions-league-pro-ramane-fara-fotbal.htm
  4. ^ http://www.realitatea.net/tvr-a-cumparat-meciurile-din-uefa-champions-league-pentru-perioada-2012-2015_1062395.html

References

TVR's board is appointed by the government and the parliament. In its post-Communist history, TVR has been almost constantly suspected of submitting to government control and censorship.

TVR is funded by direct government subsidies, by a television licence tax mandatory for all holders of TV sets and also from advertising. This has been deemed unfair competition by the commercial TV stations, which must rely exclusively on revenue from advertisement and cable operators. Proposals have been made to outlaw advertising on public TV channels.

Funding and accusations

Romania hosted on 2 December 2006, the international Junior Eurovision Song Contest. The Romanian broadcaster has been chosen by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), for being the organizer of the 4th edition of the contest. For the first time, Romania has been the host of such an event and a show produced by TVR broadcast live all over Europe, in the member states of the EBU.

Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2006

It also has six regional TV channels or "studios" ("studiouri teritoriale"): TVR București, TVR Cluj, TVR Craiova, TVR Iași, TVR Târgu Mureș and TVR Timișoara.

TVR has six national TV channels: TVR1, TVR2, TVR3, TVR News, TVRi, and TVR HD. TVRi is designed for the Romanians living outside Romania, the "i" coming from International ("Internațional" in the Romanian language). Due to the financial crisis in which TVR is immersed, TVR Cultural and TVR Info closed in the summer of 2012, however the latter was replaced by TVR News three months later.

Structure

On 31 December 2008, TVR Info, a "must-carry" channel for all cable operators, was launched. The channel broadcasts traffic information, live feed from cameras in various cities of Romania and also news.

On 10 October 2008, TVR 3 was launched. This is a channel dedicated to local programming, airing shows and news produced in the various regions of Romania.

On 1 June 2008, TVR HD started broadcasting in HD. The Euro 2008 and the 2008 Summer Olympics were transmitted in HD.

In August 2008, TVR acquired the broadcasting rights for the UEFA Champions League in Romania, for the following three seasons (between the 2009–10 and the 2011–12 season).[3] From the 2012–13 season, it has the second option for the broadcasting rights.[4]

[2]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.