World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0004091351
Reproduction Date:

Title: Run-dmc  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cory Rooney, Ooooooohhh... On the TLC Tip, Nautilus (song), Now That's What I Call 25 Years
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


For the group's self-titled album, see Run–D.M.C. (album).
Rev Run
Background information
Origin Hollis, Queens, New York, U.S.
Genres Hip hop, rap rock, new jack swing
Years active 1981–2002, 2012 (reunion)
Labels Profile
Associated acts Salt-n-Pepa, Beastie Boys, Pete Rock, N.W.A, Aerosmith, Jason Nevins, Nas, Kid Rock, TLC
Members Joseph "Run" Simmons
Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels
Past members Jason "Jam Master Jay" Mizell (deceased)

Run–D.M.C. was an American hip hop group from Hollis, Queens, New York, founded in 1981 by Joseph "Run" Simmons, Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels, and Jason "Jam Master Jay" Mizell. The group is widely acknowledged as one of the most influential acts in the history of hip hop culture. Run–D.M.C. was one of the most well-known hip hop acts in the 1980s who, along with LL Cool J, The Beastie Boys, and Public Enemy signified the advent of the new school of hip hop music. They were the first group in the genre to have a gold album (Run–D.M.C., 1984) and be nominated for a Grammy Award.[1] They were the first to earn a platinum record (King of Rock, 1985), the first to earn a multiplatinum certification (Raising Hell, 1986) the first to have videos on MTV, the first to appear on American Bandstand and the cover of Rolling Stone.[2] Run-D.M.C was the only hip hop act to perform at Live Aid in 1985.

The group was among the first to highlight the importance of the MC and DJ relationship.[3][4] In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked them number 48 in their list of the greatest musical artists of all time.[4] In 2007, Run–D.M.C. was named "The Greatest Hip Hop Group of All Time" by[5] and "Greatest Hip Hop Artist of All Time" by VH1.[6] On April 4, 2009, rapper Eminem inducted them into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In doing so, Run–D.M.C. became only the second hip hop group in history to be inducted, after Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.


Early years

The three members of Run–D.M.C. grew up in Hollis, Queens.[4] As a teenager, Simmons was recruited into hip-hop by his older brother, Russell, who was then an up-and-coming hip-hop promoter. Simmons appeared onstage as a DJ for rapper Kurtis Blow, who was managed by Russell. Known as "DJ Run, Son of Kurtis Blow", Simmons soon began performing with Kurtis Blow.[7] Previously, McDaniels had been more focused on athletics than music, but soon began to DJ after purchasing a set of turntables. Simmons convinced McDaniels to start rapping, and though McDaniels would not perform in public, he soon began writing rhymes and was known as "Easy D."

Simmons and McDaniels started hanging around Two-Fifths Park in Hollis in late 1980, hoping to rap for the local DJs that performed and competed there, and the most popular one known to frequent the park was Mizell, then known as "Jazzy Jase". Mizell was known for his flashy wardrobe and b-boy attitude, which led to minor legal troubles as a teen. Thereafter, he decided to pursue music full-time and began entertaining in the park soon after. Eventually, Simmons and McDaniels rapped in front of Mizell at the park, and the three became friends. Following Russell's success managing Kurtis Blow, he helped Run record his first single, a song called "Street Kid." The song went unnoticed, but despite the single's failure, Run's enthusiasm for hip-hop was growing. Simmons soon wanted to record again—-this time with McDaniels, but Russell refused, citing a dislike for D's rhyming style.[7] After they completed high school and started college in 1982, Simmons and McDaniels finally convinced Russell to let them record as a duo, and they recruited Mizell (who now called himself Jam-Master Jay) to be their official DJ. A year later, in 1983, Russell agreed to help them record a new single and land a record deal, but only after he changed McDaniels' stage name to 'DMC' and marketed the group as "Run–D.M.C.", a name which, incidentally, the group hated at first. DMC said later, “We wanted to be the Dynamic Two, the Treacherous Two — when we heard that shit, we was like, ‘We’re gonna be ruined!’ ”[8]

After signing with Profile Records, Run–D.M.C. released their first single "It's Like That/Sucker MCs", in late 1983. The single was well received, peaking at No. 15 on the R&B charts.[9] The trio performed the single on the New York Hot Tracks video show in 1983. Emboldened by their success, Run–D.M.C. released their eponymous debut Run–D.M.C. in 1984. Hit singles such as "Jam-Master Jay" and "Hard Times" proved that the group were more than a one-hit wonder, and the landmark single "Rock Box" was a groundbreaking fusion of raw hip-hop and hard rock that would become a cornerstone of the group's sound and paved the way for the rap rock movement of the late 1990s.

Run–D.M.C.'s swift ascension to the forefront of rap with a new sound and style meant that old-school hip hop artists were becoming outdated. Along with pushing rap into a new direction musically, Run–D.M.C. changed the entire aesthetic of hip hop music and culture. Old school rappers like Afrika Bambaataa and Melle Mel of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five tended to dress in the flashy attire that was commonly attributed to rock and disco acts of the era: tight leather, chest-baring shirts, gloves and hats with rhinestones and spikes, leather boots, etc. Run–D.M.C. discarded the more glam aspects of early hip hop's look (which ironically, was later readopted in 1990 by more "pop" rappers MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice) and incorporated a more 'street' sense of style such as fedoras, leather jackets, and unlaced Adidas shoes.[1] The group's look had been heavily influenced by Mizell's own personal style. When Russell Simmons saw Jay's flashy, yet street b-boy style, he insisted the entire group follow suit.[10] Run said later: Template:Cquote That embrace of the look and style of the street would define the next 25 years of hip hop fashion.

King of Rock, Raising Hell and mainstream success

After the success of their first album, Run–D.M.C. looked to branch out on their follow-up. The release of King of Rock in 1985 saw the group furthering their rap-rock fusion on songs like "Can You Rock It Like This" and the title track; while "Roots, Rap, Reggae" was one of the first rap/dancehall hybrids. The music video for the single "Rock Box" was the first ever rap video to air on MTV and received heavy rotation from the channel. The song was the group's most popular hit at that point and the album was certified platinum. Run–D.M.C. performed at the legendary Live Aid benefit shortly after Rock Box was released.

In late 1985, Run–D.M.C. were featured in the hip hop film Krush Groove, a fictionalized retelling of Russell Simmons' rise as a hip-hop entrepreneur and his struggles to get his own label, Def Jam Recordings, off the ground. The film featured a young Blair Underwood as Russell, along with appearances by old-school legend Kurtis Blow, The Fat Boys, teen pop act New Edition, LL Cool J, Prince protegee Sheila E., and hip hop's first successful white rap group the Beastie Boys, who were signed to Simmons' Def Jam label. The movie was a hit and further proof of hip hop's continued mainstream visibility.

Returning to the studio in 1986, the group teamed with producer Rick Rubin for their third album. Rubin had just produced LL Cool J's debut album Radio. They later released their third album titled Raising Hell which became the group's most successful album and one of the best-selling rap albums of all-time. The album was certified double-platinum and peaked at number three on the charts.

They were almost done with the album, but Rubin thought that it needed an element that would appeal to rock fans as well. This spurred the lead single "Walk This Way", a cover of the classic hard rock song by Aerosmith. The original intention was to just rap over a sample of the song, but Rubin and Jay insisted on doing a complete cover version. Aerosmith's Steven Tyler and Joe Perry were called to join Run–D.M.C. in the studio to add vocals and lead guitar, respectively. The song and video became one of the biggest hits of the '80s, reaching number four on the Hot 100, and cemented Run–D.M.C.'s crossover status. It also resurrected Aerosmith's career.[11] The single "My Adidas" led to the group signing a $1.6 million endorsement deal with athletic apparel brand Adidas. Adidas formed a long-term relationship with Run–D.M.C. and hip hop.[12]

The success of Raising Hell is often credited with kick-starting hip hop's golden age, when rap music's visibility, variety, and commercial viability exploded onto the national stage and became a global phenomenon. Their success paved the way for acts like LL Cool J and the Beastie Boys. The group toured in the wake of the album's success, but the Raising Hell Tour was marred by violence, particularly fights between rival street gangs in places like Los Angeles. Though Run–D.M.C.'s lyrics had been angry, menacing, violent, hostile, confrontational and aggressive, they typically denounced crime and ignorance, but the media began to blame the group for the incidents. In the wake of the violence, Run–D.M.C. would call for a day of peace between the gangs in L.A.

A detailed description of the lead-up to Run-DMC's call for a day of peace comprises the introduction to "Tougher Than Leather: The Rise of Run-DMC" by Bill Adler (Consafos Press 2002).[13] Referring to the book's original 1987 publication in a Rolling Stone review pegged to the book's republication in 2002, the critic Jon Caramanica wrote, "It might well be the most comprehensive biography ever written about a pop act while it was still in its prime."[14]

In 1987, following on from the Raising Hell Tour, Run-D.M.C embarked on the Together Forever Tour with the Beastie Boys.

Tougher Than Leather, changing times

After spending 1987 on tour supporting Raising Hell, Run–D.M.C. released Tougher Than Leather in 1988. The album saw the group discarding much of its rap rock leanings for a grittier, more sample-heavy sound. Despite not selling as well as its predecessor, the album boasted several strong singles, including "Run's House", "Beats to the Rhyme", and "Mary Mary." Though at the time considered a disappointing follow-up to the blockbuster Raising Hell, the album has grown in stature. In the 2000 liner notes for the album's re-release, Chuck D. of Public Enemy would call the album "...a spectacular performance against all odds and expectations."[15]

Later in 1988, the group made their second film appearance in Tougher Than Leather, a would-be crime caper that was directed by Rick Rubin and featured special guest performances by the Beastie Boys and Slick Rick. The film bombed at the box office, but strengthened the indirect relationship between Run–D.M.C. and the Def Jam label.

Though the group itself was never signed to the label, they were managed by Russell Simmons, produced by Rick Rubin (who was co-founder of Def Jam, along with Simmons), and often shared concert tour spotlight with acts on the label's roster.

Amidst the changing times and sliding sales, Run–D.M.C. released Back from Hell in 1990. The album was the worst-reviewed of their career, as the group tried to re-create itself musically with ill-advised forays into New Jack Swing (a then-popular style of production that sonically merged hip hop and contemporary R&B) and sometimes-preachy lyrical content. The two singles released, the anti-drug, anti-crime song "Pause" and street narrative "The Ave", had little success, and the group began to look outdated. Reeling from their first taste of failure, personal problems began to surface for the trio. McDaniels, who had been a heavy drinker in recent years, was losing control to alcoholism. Jay was involved in a life-threatening car accident and survived two gunshot wounds after an incident in 1990. In 1991, Simmons was charged with raping a college student in Ohio, though the charges were later dropped.[16]

With so much personal chaos and professional uncertainty, the members turned to faith to try to steady their lives. Both Simmons and McDaniels joined the church, with Run becoming especially devoted following his legal troubles and the toll it took on his finances.[17] Needing to start from scratch, they just spent time enjoying themselves with one another.

After a three-year hiatus that seemingly saw rap music move on without them, the rejuvenated Run–D.M.C. returned in 1993 with Down With the King. Building on the gritty sound of Tougher Than Leather, and adding some subtle religious references, the album featured guest appearances and production by several hip hop notables (including Pete Rock & CL Smooth, Q-Tip of A Tribe Called Quest, and Jermaine Dupri). Buoyed by the title track and first single, the album entered the charts at No. 1 and number 7 on the pop charts, Run D.M.C. had returned to the airwaves.[11]

Even though the album went platinum, the song proved to be their last hit. Jam Master Jay also found success on his own; he had founded his own label JMJ Records, and discovered and produced the group Onyx, which had tremendous success in 1993 following the release of their hit single, "Slam." Later that same year, Run became an ordained minister, and in 1995 the iconic group appeared in The Show, a Def Jam-produced documentary that featured several of hip hop's biggest acts discussing the lifestyle and sacrifices of the industry.

Later years, break-up

Over the next few years, the group did very little recording. Mizell produced and mentored up and coming artists, including Onyx and 50 Cent, who he eventually signed to the JMJ label. Simmons got divorced, re-married, and began to focus on his spiritual and philanthropic endeavors by becoming a reverend. He also wrote a book alongside his brother Russell.[1] McDaniels, also married, made an appearance on the Notorious B.I.G.'s 1997 double-album Life After Death, and focused on raising his family.

Though the group continued to tour around the world, over a decade of living a rap superstar lifestyle was beginning to take a toll on McDaniels. He was beginning to tire of Run–D.M.C., and there was increased friction between him and Simmons, who was eager to return to recording. (Simmons had at this time adopted the moniker "Rev. Run" in light of his religious conversion.) While on tour in Europe in 1997, McDaniels ongoing battle with substance abuse led to a bout of severe depression, which spurred an addiction to prescription drugs. McDaniels' depression continued for years, so much so that he contemplated suicide.[18]

In 1997, producer and remixer Jason Nevins remixed "It's Tricky" and "It's Like That". Nevins' remix of "It's Like That" hit number 1 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and many other European countries. A video was made for "It's Like That", although no new footage of Run–D.M.C. appeared in it. In 1999, Run–D.M.C. recorded the theme song for WWF wrestling stable D-Generation X entitled "The Kings," which appeared on the WWF Aggression album. They also made an appearance in a rare version of the music video "Bodyrock" by Moby.

Soon after, the group finally returned to the studio, but in an increasingly tense environment, as Simmons and McDaniels' differences had begun to show. In the wake of the exploding popularity of rap rock artists like KoRn, Limp Bizkit, and Kid Rock, Simmons wanted to return to the aggressive, hard rock-tinged sound that made the group famous. McDaniels — who had become a fan of thoughtful singer-songwriters like John Lennon, Harry Chapin, and Sarah McLachlan — wanted to go in a more introspective direction. Appearing on VH1's popular documentary series Behind the Music in early 2000, McDaniels confirmed that he was creatively frustrated and highlighted some songs that he was recording on his own. The continued friction led to McDaniels sitting out most of the group's recording sessions in protest.

Simmons, in defiance, recorded material anyway, inviting several guest stars such as Kid Rock, Jermaine Dupri, Adrian Burley, Tony Fredianelli and Stephan Jenkins of Third Eye Blind, Method Man, and fellow Queens MCs Nas and Prodigy of Mobb Deep to contribute to the project. The resultant album, Crown Royal, was delayed due to the personal problems, and when it was finally released in 2001, it featured only three appearances by DMC. Despite no major singles, the album initially sold well. However, many critics blasted the lack of DMC's involvement, and fans questioned whether this was a 'true' Run–D.M.C. album, only being released as one for contractual purposes. Some positive reviews were published: Entertainment Weekly noted that "on this hip-hop roast, new schoolers Nas and Fat Joe pay their respects with sparkling grooves....Run's rhymes are still limber."[19]

After Crown Royal, the group embarked on a worldwide tour with their "Walk This Way" compatriots, Aerosmith. The tour was a rousing success, celebrating the collaboration between the two acts and acknowledging the innumerable amount of rap and rock acts that had been influenced by their seminal hit 15 years prior. Even though he had little to do with the album, McDaniels was relishing the stage; he had been suffering from an inoperable vocal disorder that had rendered his once-booming voice a strained mumble. Performing allowed McDaniels to come out of his depression and he appeared revitalized on the tour. There was even talk of Run–D.M.C. finally signing with the Def Jam label, which by then was no longer held by its original founders.

Simmons, however, had been growing increasingly tired of hip-hop. His family was growing, and he was assisting with his brother Russell's Phat Farm clothing imprint, making Run–D.M.C. less of a priority. Aerosmith was beginning to discuss extending the successful tour, but while on the bus headed to another performance, Simmons announced that he was leaving and was not interested in returning. To the others' shock, Run was reported as having said, "Yo, tomorrow, we're gonna tell [Aerosmith] we ain't gonna do the tour. We're gonna go home. Y'all have to figure out what y'all are gonna do. Because I don't want to perform no more."[20] Despite the protests of McDaniels, Mizell, and Tyler, Simmons was adamant. Their touring career at the time seemed over, and it was uncertain whether the trio would ever record again.

On October 30, 2002, Jam-Master Jay was shot and killed at his recording studio in Queens.[21] Outside the studio where the murder occurred, fans and friends gathered and left Adidas sneakers, albums, and flowers for the legendary DJ. Mourners respected him as a family man who stayed out of trouble. The homicide has yet to be solved, echoing the unsolved murders of fellow hip hop titans The Notorious B.I.G. and 2Pac. In the aftermath, Run and DMC announced that the group was officially disbanding, and they retired the Run–D.M.C. moniker.[22]


Following the success of Notorious, it has been announced that a Run–D.M.C. biopic is in production. The film is rumored to depict the life and story of the group beginning from their inception in Hollis, Queens, and leading up to the 2002 murder of Jam Master Jay.[23]


In 2004, Run–D.M.C. were one of the first acts honored on the first annual VH1 Hip Hop Honors, alongside legends like 2Pac and The Sugarhill Gang. The Beastie Boys paid tribute. Simmons did not attend the show; he was recording his first solo album, Distortion. McDaniels also released a solo album, 'Checks Thugs and Rock n Roll. He had recently discovered that he was adopted, which lead him to be the center of the VH1 program My Adoption Journey, a documentary chronicling his re-connection with his biological family. McDaniels was also featured in the 2008 video game, Guitar Hero: Aerosmith, making appearances in the songs "Walk this Way" and "King of Rock". He frequently contributed to VH1 programs such as the I Love The... series, and he released the song "Rock Show" featuring singer Stephan Jenkins. Simmons also turned to television, starring in Run's House, a reality show that followed his life as a father and husband.

In June 2007, McDaniels appeared with Aerosmith performing "Walk This Way" for their encore at the Hard Rock Calling festival in London, England. Simmons joined Kid Rock's 2008 Rock N Roll Revival Tour, performing "It's Like That", "It's Tricky", "You Be Illin'", "Run's House", "Here We Go", "King of Rock" and "Walk This Way" with Kid Rock. They also covered "For What It's Worth" at the end of the show. In 2007, Mizell's wife, Terry, Simmons, and McDaniels also launched the J.A.M. Awards in Jay's memory. Jay's vision for social Justice, Arts and Music was promoted by many recording artists, including Snoop Dogg, LL Cool J, Raekwon, Jim Jones, M.O.P., Papoose, Everlast, DJ Muggs, Kid Capri, De La Soul, Mobb Deep, EPMD, Dead Prez, Biz Markie and Marley Marl. In October 2008, Mizell's one-time protege 50 Cent announced plans to produce a documentary about his fallen mentor.[24] In 2008 Run–D.M.C. was nominated for 2009 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. On January 14, 2009, it was confirmed that Run–D.M.C. would be one of the five inductees to the Rock Hall.[25] On April 3, 2009, Run–D.M.C. became the second rap act to be awarded the honor (after Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, who were inducted in 2007).[26] The group reunited at Jay-z's Made In America Festival in September 2012. Simmons and McDaniels then reunited again for Fun Fun Fun Fest in Austin, Texas in November 2012, and again in June 2013 for a summer concert in Atlanta, Georgia.[27]

Legacy's Stephen Thomas Erlewine states that "...More than any other hip-hop group, Run–D.M.C. are responsible for the sound and style of the [hip-hop] music."[28] Musically, they moved hip hop and rap music away from the funk and disco-oriented sound of its beginnings, into an altogether new and unique sonic imprint. Their sound is directly responsible for intentionally transforming rap music from dance-and club-oriented funk grooves like "Rapper's Delight" and "The Breaks" to an aggressive, less-danceable approach. Characterized by sparse, hard-hitting beats—as typified on hits like "It's Like That", and "Peter Piper"—this would form the foundation of hardcore hip hop (particularly hardcore East Coast hip hop). As such, Run–D.M.C. is considered the originators of the style, and hardcore hip hop would dominate the next two decades of rap music, from the bombastic, noisy sound of Public Enemy and stripped minimalism of Boogie Down Productions to the thump of early Wu-Tang Clan and Nas. Their influence was not limited to the East Coast, however. L.A.'s N.W.A., on their landmark 1988 album Straight Outta Compton, showed heavy influences from Tougher Than Leather-era Run–D.M.C., and Chicano rap act Cypress Hill were definitely influenced by Run–D.M.C.'s fusion of rap and rock.

Early on, the group rarely sampled and rarely looped anything over their skeletal beats, and the funky minimalism of major producers, such as Timbaland and The Neptunes, is drawn from Run–D.M.C.'s fundamental sound. Rap rock fusion proved to be influential among rock artists, with '80s bands like Faith No More, and the Red Hot Chili Peppers adding elements of rap to alternative rock and heavy metal. Most notably, the rap rock genre became popular in the late 1990s, with bands like Rage Against the Machine, KoRn, Sublime, Limp Bizkit, Linkin Park. Aesthetically, they changed the way rappers presented themselves. Onstage, Old school rappers had previously performed in flashy attire and colorful costumes, typically had a live band and, in the case of acts like Whodini, had background dancers. Run–D.M.C. performed with only Run and DMC out front, and Jam-Master Jay on the turntables behind them, in what is now considered the 'classic' hip hop stage setup: two turntables and microphones. They embraced the look and style of the street by wearing jeans, lace-less Adidas sneakers, and their trademark black fedoras. The group shunned both the over-the-top wardrobe of previous rap stars like the Furious Five and Afrika Bambaataa, and the silk-shirted, jheri curled, ladies' man look of rappers like Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee. Followers of their style included LL Cool J and the Beastie Boys; seemingly overnight, rappers were wearing jeans and sneakers instead of rhinestones and leather outfits. From Adidas tracksuits and rope chains to baggy jeans and Timberland footwear, hip hop's look remained married to the styles of the street. According to the Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll: Template:Cquote

Historically, the group achieved a number of notable firsts in hip hop music and are credited with being the act most responsible for pushing hip hop into mainstream popular music, initiating its musical and artistic evolution and enabling its growth as a global phenomenon. Run–D.M.C. is the first rap act to have reached a number of major accomplishments:[29]

  • A No. 1 R&B charting rap album
  • The second rap act to appear on American Bandstand (the Sugar Hill Gang appeared first on the program in 1981)
  • The first rap act to chart in the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 more than once
  • The first rap artist with a Top 10 pop charting rap album
  • The first rap artist with gold, platinum, and multi-platinum albums
  • The first rap act to appear on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine
  • (one of) The first rap act(s) to receive a Grammy Award nomination
  • The first rap act to make a video appearance on MTV
  • The first rap act to perform at a major arena
  • Signed to a major product endorsement deal (Adidas)
  • The second rap act to be inducted into the Rock and roll hall of fame




  • Adler, Bill, “Tougher Than Leather: The Rise of Run-DMC,” Consafos Press, 2002. (This title is an update of “Tougher Than Leather: The Authorized Biography of Run-DMC.”)
  • Brown, Terrell, “Reverend Run (Run-DMC),” Mason Crest Publishers, 2008.
  • McDaniels, Darryl (with Haring, Bruce), “King of Rock: Respect, Responsibility, and My Life with Run-DMC,” Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2001.
  • Reverend Run, The (with Taylor, Curtis L.), “It’s Like That: A Spiritual Memoir,” St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
  • Ro, Ronin, “Raising Hell: The Reign, Ruin, and Redemption of Run-DMC and Jam Master Jay,” Amistad, 2005.

See also



  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony and Gates, David Turner Arts and Letters: An A-to-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience. Running Press: Philadelphia: 2004. ISBN 0-7624-2042-1

External links

  • Official website
  • Discogs
  • Official website of DMC
  • Harry Allen reflects on the passing of JMJ and the impact of Run–D.M.C.
  • Run-D.M.C. Music Videos

Template:Yo! MTV Raps

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.