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Run out

Run out is a method of dismissal in the sport of cricket. It is governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket.

Michael Clarke avoids being run out during the Third Test against South Africa at the SCG in January 2009.


  • The rules 1
  • Running out a batsman "backing up" 2
    • Vinoo Mankad 2.1
    • Modern Intepretations of Run Out of Non-Striker 2.2
    • Instances of Mankading in Test cricket 2.3
    • Instances of Mankading in One Day Internationals 2.4
    • Instances of Mankading in first-class 2.5
    • Instances of not Mankading 2.6
  • References 3
  • External links 4

The rules

A batsman is out Run out if at any time while the ball is in play no part of his bat or person is grounded behind the popping crease and his wicket is fairly put down by the opposing side.

A batsman may be dismissed Run out whether or not a run is being attempted, even if the delivery is a no ball (i.e. not a fair delivery). There are a number of exceptions to this:

  1. A batsman is not run out if he or his bat had been grounded behind the popping crease, but he subsequently leaves it to avoid injury, when the wicket is put down.
  2. A batsman is not run out if the ball has not been touched by a fielder (excluding a helmet worn by a fielder), after the bowler has entered his delivery stride, before the wicket is put down. (Therefore, the bowler may not run out the striker instead of bowling to him. This also means that the non-striker is not out if a ball hit by the striker puts down the non-striker's wicket, provided the ball did not touch any member of the fielding side before doing so.)
  3. A batsman is not given out Run out if he can be given out Stumped.
  4. If the bails have been removed from the stumps, a batsman is only out if the fielder pulls a stump out of the ground with the hand holding the ball. If one bail is still on the stumps the fielder is allowed to knock the bail off to claim a run out.

The batsman can be judged run out when he is closest to the end where the wicket has been put down by the opposition and no other batsman is available inside the crease of the same end. The runs completed before a Run out are still scored by the batsman and his team (compare caught where the reverse is true). The bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Running out a batsman "backing up"

As a bowler enters his delivery stride, the non-striking batsman usually 'backs up'. This means he leaves his popping crease and walks towards the other end of the wicket so that it will take him less time to reach the other end if he and his batting partner choose to attempt a run.

Sometimes a batsman, whilst backing up, leaves the popping crease before the bowler has actually delivered the ball. Where this has happened, the bowler may attempt to run the non-striking batsman out. Getting a batsman out this way, though legal, is generally considered to be against the spirit of the game as the non-striker usually accidentally leaves the crease. By convention, the bowler is meant to warn the batsman to stay in his crease rather than to take his wicket. If he fails, and the batsman gets home, the delivery is called a dead ball. When it has happened in first-class cricket, it has been controversial.[1]

Vinoo Mankad

The most famous example of this method of dismissal involved the Indian bowler Vinoo Mankad. It occurred during India's tour of Australia on 13 December 1947 in the second Test at Sydney. Mankad ran out Bill Brown when, in the act of delivering the ball, he held on to it and removed the bails with Brown well out of his crease. This was the second time Mankad had dismissed Brown in this fashion on the tour, having already done it in an earlier match against an Australian XI. On that occasion he had warned Brown once before running him out. The Australian press accused Mankad of being unsportsmanlike, although some Australians, including Don Bradman, the Australian captain at the time, defended Mankad's actions. Since this incident, a batsman dismissed in this fashion is (informally) said to have been "Mankaded".

The most recent incident about Mankading is England batsman Jos Buttler being dismissed by Sri Lankan bowler Sachithra Senanayake in 2014 in England.[2]

News report of Bill Brown's runout

Modern Intepretations of Run Out of Non-Striker

The Laws have since been changed so that a bowler may no longer "Mankad" a batsman once he has entered his delivery stride. However, under Law 42.15 it remains legal for a bowler to run out a non-striker who has strayed outside his crease after he has started his run up, but before he has entered his delivery stride. (Appendix D of the 2000 Code defines delivery stride as the stride during which the delivery swing is made; it starts when the bowler's back foot lands for that stride and ends when the front foot lands in the same stride.)

In 2011 the ICC Playing Conditions for Test Matches,[3] One Day Internationals[4] and International T20[5] brought Mankading back into the International game and other forms of professional cricket including the IPL T20.[6]

According to the various professional playing conditions, 42.11, "The bowler is permitted, before releasing the ball and provided he has not completed his usual delivery swing, to attempt to run out the non-striker. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one of the over. If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal dead ball as soon as possible."

The umpires shall deem the bowler to have completed his delivery swing once his bowling arm passes the normal point of ball release.[7]

By making these changes, the ICC have changed the balance of regulations slightly against a batsman seeking advantage. Unless they have made these changes expecting that they will not be exercised, attempts at, and appeals for, a run out under these circumstances are within the sweep of the modern game, despite protestations by some that they are "not within the spirit of the game." The Spirit of Cricket, which is a preamble to the Laws, does not discuss this.

On 3rd Jun 2014, in the 44th over of England's innings of the 5th ODI with Sri Lanka at Edgbaston, bowler Sachithra Senanayake ran out non-striker Jos Buttler. The Umpire gave Buttler out having first asked Sri Lankan fielding captain Angelo Mathews whether he wished to confirm the appeal,[8][9] to the dismay of the crowd and some commentators and professionals.[10] In July 2014 The World Cricket Council, an independent consultative body of former international captains and umpires, unanimously expressed support of Sri Lanka's actions and a lack of sympathy with the batsman[11]

For other forms of cricket, governed by the Laws, the bowler can run out the non-striker only before entering his delivery stride. As the bowler's back foot lands, the non-striker can move down the pitch without risk of run out.

Thus amateur cricketers may not copy the professionals in detail on this: what is Out in professional cricket (but may be regarded as too sharp a practice by some) is definitely Not Out in amateur cricket.

In some formats of indoor cricket "Mankading" is still permitted. When this happens the batsman is actually given out "Mankad" rather than "run out".

Instances of Mankading in Test cricket

  1. Bill Brown by Vinoo Mankad, Australia v India, Sydney, 1947-48[12]
  2. Ian Redpath by Charlie Griffith, Australia v West Indies, Adelaide, 1968-69[13]
  3. Derek Randall by Ewen Chatfield, England v New Zealand, Christchurch, 1977-78[14]
  4. Sikander Bakht by Alan Hurst, Pakistan v Australia, Perth, 1978-79[15]

Instances of Mankading in One Day Internationals

The batsman's team is listed first.

  1. Brian Luckhurst by Greg Chappell, England v Australia, Melbourne, 1974-75[16]
  2. Grant Flower by Dipak Patel, Zimbabwe v New Zealand, Harare, 1992-93[17]
  3. Port Elizabeth, 1992-93[18]
  4. Jos Buttler by Sachithra Senanayake, England v Sri Lanka, Birmingham, 2014[19]

Instances of Mankading in first-class

  1. Joe Hardstaff by Khadim Hussain, Lord Tennyson's XI vs Sind, Karachi, 1937[20][21]
  2. John Smith by Ray Allen, Canterbury v Wellington, Wellington, 1944[22]
  3. Cardiff, 1956[21][23]
  4. Hanumant Singh by Ashwini Chaturvedi, Rajasthan v Uttar Pradesh, Udaipur, 1960[24]
  5. Rudolph Cohen by Jamiel Ali, Jamaica v Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, 1964[25]
  6. Ray Gripper by Barry Richards, Rhodesia v Natal, Salisbury, 1968[26]
  7. Raymond Le Roux, South African Universities v Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, 1968[27]
  8. Clive Lloyd by Stanley Hinds, Guyana v Windward Islands, Roseau, 1983[28]
  9. Alex Barrow by Murali Kartik, Somerset v Surrey, Taunton, 2012[29][30]
  10. Sandipan Das by Murali Kartik, Bengal v Railways, Delhi, 2013[31][32]

Instances of not Mankading

  1. Walsh – Jaffar : Courtney Walsh of the West Indies famously refused to Mankad last man Saleem Jaffar of Pakistan for backing up too far in a group match in the 1987 World Cup, but let him off with a warning. Pakistan went on to win the match while the defeat cost the West Indies a place in the semi-final.
  2. Rafique – Gul : The same thing was repeated in a 2003 Test match in Multan between Bangladesh and Pakistan. Pakistan eventually won the Test match by just 1 wicket. Mohammad Rafique of Bangladesh did not run out Umar Gul of Pakistan.
  3. Ashwin – Thirimanne : Ravichandran Ashwin of the Indian cricket team Mankaded Lahiru Thirimanne of Sri Lankan cricket team when he backed up too much before the ball was bowled in a group match in the Commonwealth Bank Series 2012 held in Australia. However the standing umpires, Paul Reiffel and Billy Bowden, after discussion asked India if they wanted to reconsider the appeal and Virender Sehwag, captaining in the absence of MS Dhoni, withdrew the appeal after discussion with Sachin Tendulkar. Sehwag claims that Ashwin had warned Thirimanne before running him out, however Mahela Jayawardene, the Sri Lanka captain, said he was not aware of the warning.[33]


  1. ^ Steve Harmison (2014-06-04). "BBC Sport - Jos Buttler run-out defended by Sri Lanka captain Angelo Mathews". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  2. ^
  6. ^ "IPLT20 match playing conditions 42 Law 42 Fair and Unfair Play".  
  7. ^ "ICC news: Powerplay tweaks and end of runners | Cricket News | Cricinfo ICC Site". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  8. ^ wirepressagency. "Mankading run out: Jos Buttler Sachithra Senanayake England vs Sri Lanka". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  9. ^ "BBC Sport - England v Sri Lanka, 5th ODI, Edgbaston as it happened". 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  10. ^ Reich, Josh (2014-06-04). Mankading' raises debate on spirit of cricket once again | Reuters"'". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  11. ^ "World Cricket Committee | Lord's". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  12. ^ India in Australia Test Series - 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  13. ^ The Frank Worrell Trophy - 4th Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  14. ^ England in New Zealand Test Series - 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  15. ^ Pakistan in Australia Test Series - 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  16. ^ England in Australia ODI Match, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  17. ^ New Zealand in Zimbabwe ODI Series - 2nd ODI, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  18. ^ India in South Africa ODI Series - 2nd ODI, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  19. ^ "England v Sri Lanka, 5th ODI. Senanayake catches Buttler dozing". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  20. ^ Sind v Lord Tennyson's XI, Lord Tennyson's XI in India 1937/38 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  21. ^ a b Martin Chandler (9 June 2014). "A short history of Mankading" – CricketWeb. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  22. ^ Wellington v Canterbury, First-Class matches in New Zealand 1943/44 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  23. ^ Glamorgan v Essex, County Championship 1956 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  24. ^ Rajasthan v Uttar Pradesh, Ranji Trophy 1959/60 (Central Zone) – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  25. ^ Trinidad and Tobago v Jamaica, Regional Tournament 1963/64 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  26. ^ Rhodesia v Natal, Currie Cup 1968/69 (Section A) – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  27. ^ Orange Free State v South African Universities, Other First-Class matches in South Africa 1968/69 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  28. ^ Windward Islands v Guyana, Shell Shield 1982/83 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  29. ^ Wisden 2013 pages 64 (Editor's Notes) and 614 (match report)
  30. ^ "Kartik ‘Mankads’ Barrow, comes under fire". Wisden India. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  31. ^ "UP, Kerala complete wins on third day". Wisden India. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  32. ^ "Tension at Jamia ground after Kartik 'Mankaded' Bengal player". sify. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  33. ^ Ashwin warned Thirimanne before 'Mankading' - Sehwag, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 21 February 2012

External links

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