World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sam Bradford

Article Id: WHEBN0010585014
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sam Bradford  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 2010 St. Louis Rams season, Tim Tebow, 2010 NFL Draft, Jason White (American football), 2007 Oklahoma Sooners football team
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Sam Bradford

Sam Bradford
Sam Bradford in 2012
No. 8     St. Louis Rams
Personal information
Date of birth: (1987-11-08) November 8, 1987
Place of birth: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Height: 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) Weight: 224 lb (102 kg)
Career information
High school: Oklahoma City (OK) Putnam City North
College: Oklahoma
NFL Draft: 2010 / Round: 1 / Pick: 1
Debuted in 2010 for the St. Louis Rams
Career history
Roster status: Injured Reserve
Career highlights and awards
Career NFL statistics as of 2014
TDINT 59–38
Passing yards 11,065
QB Rating 79.3
Stats at

Samuel Jacob "Sam" Bradford (born November 8, 1987) is an American football quarterback for the St. Louis Rams of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Rams first overall in the 2010 NFL Draft. He played college football at Oklahoma. In 2008, as a redshirt sophomore, Bradford became the second sophomore to win the Heisman Trophy. He also holds the NCAA record for most touchdown passes by a freshman quarterback, with 36.

In his first season in the NFL, Bradford set the record for most completions by a rookie in NFL history, which helped earn him the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year award.

Early years

Bradford was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.[1] He attended Putnam City North High School in Oklahoma City, and starred in football, basketball and golf for the Putnam City North Panthers. As a senior quarterback for his high school football team in 2005, he threw for 2,029 yards and 17 touchdowns in 12 games.[2] His senior year in basketball, he averaged a double-double.[3]

Bradford was a two to a three-star recruit not that highly ranked among the high school class of 2006,[4] with his highest ranking being No. 12 among only pro-style quarterbacks by recruiting source, behind Pat Devlin, Juice Williams, Josh Freeman, and being overshadowed by the likes of five-star recruits Mitch Mustain, Matthew Stafford and Tim Tebow.[2][5]

College career

Bradford received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Oklahoma, where he played for coach Bob Stoops' Oklahoma Sooners football team from 2007 to 2009.

Freshman season

In 2006, Oklahoma's starting quarterback Rhett Bomar, then a sophomore, was dismissed from the team for violating NCAA rules. Paul Thompson, a senior quarterback-turned-wide receiver, converted back to quarterback and led the 2006 Oklahoma Sooners football team to win the Big 12 Championship Game. His departure left a void at the quarterback position at Oklahoma. Six players on the roster tried out for the starting position during the following off-season, including three walk-on quarterbacks,[6] true freshman Keith Nichol (a 4-star recruit and 6th-ranked dual-threat quarterback in the 2007 recruiting class, who later transferred to Michigan State University), junior Joey Halzle (the only one with game experience), and Bradford, a redshirt freshman. On August 21, 2007, Bradford won the starting quarterback role for the 2007 team.[7]

Bradford (left), Joey Halzle (center) and Hays McEachern (right) during spring practice in April 2007

In his first game for the Sooners, against the University of North Texas, Bradford completed 21 of 23 attempts for 363 yards and three touchdowns in a little over two quarters, breaking the school record for passing yards in a half, held by his quarterback coach Josh Heupel, with 350.[8] The very next game, Bradford broke Heisman Trophy winner Jason White's school record for most consecutive pass completions with 22 (18 came in the first half and four at the start of the second).[9]

In the second week of the 2007 season, Bradford was named the national offensive player of the week by the Walter Camp Foundation[10] after tying the school record for most touchdown passes in a game with five.[11] Having thrown 25 touchdowns through his first nine games, Bradford was on pace to break the NCAA freshman record of 29 touchdowns set by David Neill in 1998 and tied by Colt McCoy in 2006.

In the November 17, 2007 game against Texas Tech, Bradford suffered a concussion of unknown severity. He was removed from the game and replaced by back-up quarterback Joey Halzle. The Sooners lost the game, 27–34.[12] Bradford was able to play in the Bedlam game against Oklahoma State on November 24.[13][14]

During the November 24, 2007 game against the Oklahoma State Cowboys, Bradford broke the NCAA freshman record of 29 touchdowns by passing his 30th touchdown to Joe Jon Finley during the second quarter.[15] At the Missouri Tigers game, Bradford threw for 209 yards and 0 interceptions. He was 18–26 and threw for two touchdowns.

The Sooners won the Big 12 Championship after defeating Missouri for the second time in a season. The Sooners played the West Virginia Mountaineers in the Fiesta Bowl on January 2, 2008 and lost 48–28. It was Bradford's first BCS bowl game as a starter.

Sophomore season

Sam Bradford during the 2008 NCAA season.

In week 8 of the following season against Kansas, Bradford surpassed quarterback coach Josh Heupel's school record for passing yards in a single game with 468 yards. Bradford led the Sooners to their third straight Big 12 Championship and defeated Missouri 62–21. In the process, the Sooners broke Hawaii's 2006 record for the most points in a single season with 702 points. Also, the Sooners were the first team in NCAA history who had scored 60 or more points in five straight games. Oklahoma finished the 2008 regular season with a 12–1 record, ranking #2 in the AP Poll and #1 in the BCS Standings. The Sooners earned a trip to play Florida at the 2009 BCS National Championship Game.

After the regular season, Bradford captured the Davey O'Brien Award[16] and the Heisman Trophy.[17][18] He is the second sophomore, after 2007 winner Tim Tebow of the University of Florida, to receive the Heisman; he also became the fifth University of Oklahoma player, as well as the first person of Native American descent to capture the trophy.[19] Bradford received 1,726 total points while the other finalists, Colt McCoy, of the University of Texas, and Tim Tebow, received 1,604 and 1,575, respectively. Tebow, however, collected more first-place votes, 309, while Bradford got 300. Bradford got the most points thanks to the help of his 315 second-place votes. A total of 926 voters participated in the balloting.[20]

2008 Heisman Trophy Finalist Voting[21]
Finalist First place votes
(3 pts. each)
Second place votes
(2 pts. each)
Third place votes
(1 pt. each)
Total points
Sam Bradford 300 315 196 1,726
Colt McCoy 266 288 230 1,604
Tim Tebow 309 207 234 1,575

When combined with Blake Griffin's Naismith Award, Oklahoma became the first school to have a winner in both top basketball and football individual awards in the same year. Bradford was also voted the Associated Press College Football Player of the Year. Bradford received 27 votes, again beating McCoy (17 votes) and Tim Tebow (16 votes).[22] Bradford is the third Oklahoma Sooner to win the award, joining Josh Heupel (2000) and Jason White (2003). Heupel and White were also quarterbacks, with Heupel being the current quarterbacks coach for Oklahoma.

Bradford faced Florida, led by Tebow, in the 2009 BCS National Championship Game.[23] He threw 26-of-41 passes for 256 yards, two touchdowns, and two interceptions, as Florida won the game 24–14.[24]

Junior season

Bradford announced that he would forgo the 2009 NFL Draft to return to Oklahoma for his junior season.[25] In the Sooners' first game of the season (against Brigham Young), Bradford suffered a 3rd degree AC joint sprain one play after becoming Oklahoma's all-time passing leader. Playing without Bradford for the second half of the game, Oklahoma went on to lose 14–13.[26] Bradford was originally scheduled to return in about three to six weeks,[27] but head coach Bob Stoops initially refused to either confirm or deny that timetable.[28] After missing three weeks, Bradford returned to the field during the Baylor game, and completed 27-of-49 passes for 389 yards and one touchdown, leading the Sooners to a 33–7 victory.[29] Bradford re-injured his right shoulder on October 17, 2009 in the Red River Rivalry against Texas on the second drive of the game. It was later announced that he would undergo season-ending shoulder surgery and enter the 2010 NFL Draft.[30]

Awards and honors

  • 2010 NFL Draft First overall pick
  • 2010 Carroll Rosenbloom Memorial Award (St. Louis Rams' rookie of the year award)


Passing Rushing
Season Team GP Rating Att Comp Pct Yds TD Int Att Yds TD
2007 Oklahoma Sooners 14 176.52 341 237 69.5 3,121 36 8 31 7 0
2008 Oklahoma Sooners 14 180.86 483 328 67.9 4,721 50 8 42 47 5
2009 Oklahoma Sooners 3 133.9 69 39 58.7 562 2 0 3 −5 0


Professional career

2010 NFL Draft

Although he likely would have been one of the first quarterbacks taken in the [53] Commonly considered one of the top prospects available, Bradford was projected as high as the No. 1 overall pick for most of the preseason and the early part of the regular season.[54][55][56]

Due to his shoulder injury, Bradford did not throw at the 2010 NFL Combine, however he was measured and participated in interviews and medical examinations. He was measured at 6–4¼ and 236 pounds, about 15 pounds above his college playing weight.[57] Bradford scored 36 out of 50 on the Wonderlic test, well above the average of 28.5 for the 30 NFL quarterbacks slated to start in 2010.[58]

On March 19, Bradford met with St. Louis Rams general manager Billy Devaney and offensive coordinator Pat Shurmur in Pensacola, Florida, where he had been training and rehabbing since undergoing surgery on his throwing shoulder.[59]

On April 22, 2010 Sam Bradford was selected as the No.1 pick in the NFL Draft by the St. Louis Rams.[60]

Pre-draft measurables
Ht Wt Arm length Hand size 40-yd dash 10-yd split 20-yd split 20-ss 3-cone Vert Broad BP Wonderlic
6 ft 4¼ in 236 lb 34⅜ in 9½ in 4.78 s 36
All values from NFL Combine[61][62]

St. Louis Rams

2010: Rookie Success

In early Spring, Bradford met with Thom Goudy, a professional development coach in St. Louis, MO. Goudy helped Bradford with his pocket technique. Bradford spent three weeks in his training camp before starting the summer conditioning camp. On April 22, 2010, Bradford was selected by the St. Louis Rams as the first overall pick in the 2010 NFL Draft.[63] It was the first time the Rams selected a quarterback in the first round of a draft since the selection of Bill Munson in the 1964 NFL Draft. Bradford is the first No. 1 pick out of Oklahoma since Billy Sims was selected top overall by the Detroit Lions in the 1980 NFL Draft. Bradford chose the #8 in honor to Troy Aikman who also attended OU before transferring to UCLA.[64]

Bradford throws against NY Jets, 2012.

On July 30, 2010, Bradford signed a six-year, $78 million deal, which has $50 million of guarantees and has a maximum value of $86 million making it the largest contract ever for an NFL rookie.[65][66]

In the preseason opener against the Minnesota Vikings on August 14, Bradford went 6-of-13 for 57 yards and was also sacked 3 times in a Rams loss.[67] After another unimpressive showing against the Browns in his second game, Bradford bounced back in a big way against the Patriots in the third game of the preseason. He got his first start in place of the injured A. J. Feeley, throwing two first half touchdowns and helping lead the Rams to a 36–35 victory.

He competed for the starting quarterback position with Feeley and on September 4, Bradford was named the starting quarterback for the 2010 season opener.[68]

On September 12, 2010, in his first regular season game as the starting quarterback for the Rams, Bradford completed 32/55 passes for 253 yards, 1 touchdown and 3 interceptions.The Arizona Cardinals won 17–13. His first NFL touchdown came on a 1-yard pass to Laurent Robinson. Two weeks later, he then achieved his first victory as an NFL starter when the Rams defeated the Washington Redskins in an upset by a score of 30–16, which snapped a 13-game overall home losing streak. The next week, he passed for 289 yards and two TDs in leading the Rams over the Seahawks, 20-3. This was their first win in a division game since November 2007.

In week 8 against the Carolina Panthers, Bradford connected on 25 of 32 passes, two of them for touchdowns. In his first eight games he scored eleven TDs, which tied an NFL record—held by Dan Marino (1983), Peyton Manning (1998), and Ben Roethlisberger (2004)—for over that span by a rookie since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970.[69] Bradford went 3-2 as a starter in October, passing for 1019 yards and 7 TDs against 3 INTs. He was named the NFL's offensive rookie of the month.

During October and November, he established a record for most consecutive passes without an interception for a rookie (169), which ended with an interception by William Moore in a home game against the Atlanta Falcons on November 21.[70] On November 28, 2010, against the Denver Broncos, Bradford became the first rookie in NFL history to pass for at least 300 yards and three touchdowns with no interceptions during a road victory.[71] He capped November by becoming the first rookie QB to win two consecutive Offensive Rookie of the Month awards.

On December 26, Bradford surpassed Peyton Manning's record for most completed passes by an NFL rookie quarterback (326). Bradford finished the season with 354 completions out of 590 attempts, surpassing Manning's record of 575 for most attempts by an NFL rookie quarterback. Bradford became just the third rookie quarterback to start all 16 regular season games and pass over 3000 passing yards, joining Peyton Manning and Matt Ryan.[72][73]

2011: Injuries and Struggles

Coming into the 2011 season, expectations were high for the St. Louis Rams and Bradford. After going 4-0 in the preseason, it appeared as if they would be fulfilled, but once the regular season rolled around injuries ravaged the roster. A lower body injury bothered Bradford for the majority of the year and the Rams finished a dismal 2-14.

During the off-season, there was much speculation that the Rams would select Heisman Trophy winner and former Baylor quarterback Robert Griffin III. But, new head coach, Jeff Fisher instilled hope that Bradford was still the Rams franchise quarterback, solidifying this hope when the Rams later reached a deal with the Washington Redskins for the 2nd overall selection in the 2012 NFL Draft.

2012: New Beginnings

The Rams weren't expected to make much of a leap following their dismal campaign the year before, but behind strong play by Bradford and rookies stepping up to the challenge, the Rams finished a respectable 7-8-1. Bradford finished the season with career best numbers. 3,702 passing yards, 21 touchdowns compared to only 13 interceptions and an 82.6 passer rating to go along with 59.5 completion percentage.

2013: Fast Start

With all the additions in the off-season, the Rams and Bradford were expected to excel in 2013. The team as a whole suffered through inconsistency, but Bradford did not. Through the first seven games, Bradford passed for 1,687 yards and 14 touchdowns to just 4 interceptions and 90.9 passer rating. But, during the Rams game against the Carolina Panthers in week 7, Bradford tore his left ACL on a run out of bounds, ending his season.

2014: More Injuries

On all accounts, Bradford had recovered nicely from his early season injury and had been performing well in training camp. After sitting out the Rams first preseason game, he returned against the Green Bay Packers in week 2, and generated positive reviews. But, in the third game against the Cleveland Browns, he was once again injured and taken out of the game. While the injury was not initially believed to be serious, later tests confirmed Bradford had re-torn his left ACL, ending his season.


Regular season

Year Team G GS Passing Rushing Sacked Fumbles
Att Comp Pct Yds Y/A TD Int Rtg Att Yds Avg TD Sack YdsL Fum FumL
2010 STL 16 16 590 354 60.0 3512 6.0 18 15 76.5 27 63 2.3 1 34 244 7 2
2011 STL 10 10 357 191 53.5 2164 6.1 6 6 70.5 18 26 1.4 0 36 248 10 7
2012 STL 16 16 551 328 59.5 3702 6.7 21 13 82.6 36 124 3.4 1 35 233 7 1
2013 STL 7 7 262 159 60.7 1687 6.4 14 4 90.9 15 31 2.1 0 15 97 3 1
Total 49 49 1760 1032 58.6 11065 6.3 59 38 79.3 96 244 2.5 2 120 822 27 11

NFL records

  • most consecutive passes without an interception by a rookie quarterback (169)
  • most completions by a rookie quarterback (354)


Bradford is 1/16th Cherokee and listed as an official citizen on the Cherokee Nation tribe's rolls.[74][75] Bradford is the first person of identified Cherokee descent to start at quarterback for a Division I university since Sonny Sixkiller, a full-blooded Cherokee, who played for the University of Washington during the 1970–1972 seasons.[76] Bradford also holds the distinction of being the first Native American to win the Heisman Trophy since Jim Plunkett.[77]

His father, Kent Bradford, was an offensive lineman for the Sooners from 1977 to 1978.[78]

Bradford is also an avid ice hockey fan. At one point Bradford compared his love for hockey to his love for football. According to a January 6, 2009 report, his favorite team is the Vancouver Canucks.[79] Bradford is a scratch golfer and was a star basketball player in high school.[80]

Bradford also appeared in a short film of testimonials from celebrity videos called I Am Second, sharing his faith about Jesus Christ and winning the Heisman Trophy.[81]

In 2009, Oklahoma City Mayor Mick Cornett declared January 13 as "Sam Bradford Day" in Oklahoma City.[82]

See also


  1. ^ "Official Site of the Oklahoma Sooners". 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  2. ^ a b "14 Sam Bradford". Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  3. ^ Maisel, Ivan (2007-11-30). "Oklahoma's rookie QB makes college game looks easy". ES-28PN. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  4. ^ Thamel, Pete (2008-12-13). "Bradford Wins Heisman, but the Top Prize Awaits".  
  5. ^ "Football Recruiting – Quarterback". Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  6. ^ "2007 Oklahoma Sooners Roster". 
  7. ^ "Bradford Gets Nod at Quarterback". Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  8. ^ Carlson, Jenni (2007-09-02). "Sooner newbies Bradford, Murray debut with monster games". Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  9. ^ Trotter, Jake (2007-09-09). "Sooners' Bradford proves that he belongs". Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  10. ^ "Bradford Captures Camp Honor". 2007-09-09. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  11. ^ "Oklahoma Rocks Miami, 51–13". Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  12. ^ "The Sports Network I-A College Football". The Sports Network. Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  13. ^ "ESPN – Sooners QB Bradford to be reevaluated this week – College Football". ESPN. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  14. ^ Bradford's early exit in '07 means Tech still has to size up Sam
  15. ^ "Patrick runs for career-best 202 yards, 2 TDs as OU rolls". ESPN. 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  16. ^ a b "Bradford is winner of O'Brien QB award". 
  18. ^ "Heisman U? Sam Bradford is latest in impressive run of OU signal-callers". 
  19. ^ "Bradford wins 2008 Heisman Trophy". 
  20. ^ "OU's Sam Bradford wins 74th Heisman Trophy". 
  21. ^ "Oklahoma QB Bradford wins Heisman Trophy". 
  22. ^ SAM BRADFORD OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA SELECTED AS THE 2008 AP College Football Player of the Year
  23. ^ Dufresne, Chris (January 5, 2009). "Sam Bradford and Tim Tebow are Heismans apart". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Florida Gators vs. Oklahoma Sooners Box Score, January 8, 2009". 
  25. ^ "Sam Bradford Will Return to Oklahoma". 2009-01-14. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ "Hall's TD pass with 3:03 remaining lifts Cougars over No. 3 Sooners". Associated Press. 2009-09-05. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  28. ^ Baldwin, Mike (September 21, 2009). "OU's Bob Stoops: Sam Bradford still questionable for Miami". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  29. ^ "Big 12: Even with Bradford, Sooners beatable". 
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ a b "SN's 2007 college football All-Americans". 
  32. ^ "Nolan Nawrocki’s All-America team". 
  33. ^ "2007 CFN All-America Teams". 
  34. ^ "'s 2007 All-Americas". CNN. December 11, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  35. ^ "2007 All-Big 12 Football Awards Announced". 
  36. ^ "2007 Academic All-Big 12 Football Team Announced". 
  37. ^ "2008 ESPN THE MAGAZINE Academic All-America". 
  38. ^ "2008 Academic All-Big 12 Football Team Announced". 
  39. ^ "2008 All-Big 12 Football Awards Announced". 
  40. ^ " 2008 All-America Team". 
  41. ^ " 2008 All-America Teams". 
  42. ^ "2008 ESPN All-Americans". 
  43. ^ "Associated Press names 2008 All-America Team". 
  44. ^ "Sporting News' college football All-American First Team". 
  45. ^ "Heisman Finalists". The Washington Post. December 13, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  46. ^ "AP College Football Player of the Year Winner". 
  47. ^ "Texas Tech QB Harrell named co-national player of the year". 
  48. ^ "Touchdown Club News, Awards". March 27, 2009. 
  49. ^ "NCAA Quarterback of the Year". Touchdown Club of Columbus. April 6, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Sam Bradford #14 QB". 
  51. ^ "Sam Bradford announces he'll return to Sooners", The Sporting News, January 14, 2009 
  52. ^ Perloff, Andrew (April 28, 2009). "(Way early) 2010 NFL Mock Draft". 
  53. ^ Evans, Thayer (October 26, 2009), "Oklahoma’s Bradford Chooses Season-Ending Surgery and Will Try for Draft", New York Times 
  54. ^  
  55. ^ Perloff, Andrew (April 28, 2009). "Sam Bradford goes No.1 to St. Louis Rams in 2010 NFL Mock Draft". Sports Illustrated. 
  56. ^ Rang, Rob (October 23, 2009), "2009 NFL Mock Draft", 
  57. ^ Jeremiah, Daniel (February 26, 2009). , 236 pounds at Friday's weigh-in"14"Oklahoma QB Sam Bradford measured at 6'4. 
  58. ^ Thompson, Edgar (March 10, 2010), "Wonderlic scores of 2010 NFL starting quarterbacks and NFL draft QB prospects",  
  59. ^ Thomas, Jim (March 19, 2010), "Rams meet with Sam Bradford",  
  60. ^ "Rams take Sam Bradford",  
  61. ^ "Sam Bradford Combine Profile",, retrieved February 27, 2010 
  62. ^ "Sam Bradford, DS #1 QB, Oklahoma". Retrieved November 8, 2012. 
  63. ^ "It's finally official: Rams take Bradford".  
  64. ^ "Bradford changes jersey number to honor Aikman".  
  65. ^
  66. ^ Schefter, Adam (July 31, 2010). "Bradford, Rams Agree On Record-Breaking Deal". news services. Retrieved September 11, 2010. 
  67. ^ Mortensen, Chris (August 15, 2010). "Sam Bradford not pressing to start".  
  68. ^ Maske, Mark (September 4, 2010). "Sam Bradford named Rams' starter". Washington Post. Retrieved September 11, 2010. 
  69. ^ "Rams at .500 as Sam Bradford tosses two TDs". October 31, 2010. 
  70. ^ "NFL Game Center: Atlanta Falcons at St. Louis Rams - 2010 Week 11". November 21, 2010. Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. 
  71. ^ Sando, Mike (November 29, 2010). "Sam Bradford's performance in perspective". Retrieved 2010-11-29. 
  72. ^ Thomas, Jim (December 30, 2010). "The Rams' rock at quarterback". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 
  73. ^ Farmer, Sam (January 1, 2011). "Rams' Sam Bradford has displayed an unexpected quality: durability". Los Angeles Times. 
  74. ^ "BCS National Championship: OU quarterback Sam Bradford inspiration to American Indians". 
  75. ^ Wieberg, Steve (December 9, 2008). "Native son: Okla. QB Bradford brings pride to Cherokees". USA Today. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  76. ^ "Sam Bradford 'a role model' among Native Americans". 
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^ "U.S. college football star shows love for Canucks". 
  80. ^ Rom, Clements (April 24, 2010). "Sam Bradford Becomes Face of the Franchise in St. Louis". Bleacher Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  81. ^ "Sam Bradford - I Am Second". Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  82. ^ "Oklahoma City mayor declares Sam Bradford Day in city". 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 

External links

  • St. Louis Rams profile
  • Oklahoma Sooners bio
  • ESPN stats
  • Sam Bradford at the Heisman Trophy
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.