World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Second Hellenic Republic

Article Id: WHEBN0009101110
Reproduction Date:

Title: Second Hellenic Republic  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Incident at Petrich, Alexandros Hatzikyriakos, History of modern Greece, Monarchy of Greece, History of Greece
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Second Hellenic Republic

Hellenic Republic
Ἑλληνικὴ Δημοκρατία
Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía

Flag Coat of arms
Hymn to Liberty
Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
Location of the Hellenic Republic (1935) in Europe.
Capital Athens
Languages Greek
Religion Greek Orthodoxy
Government Parliamentary republic
 •  1924–1926 Pavlos Kountouriotis
 •  1926 Theodoros Pangalos
 •  1926–1929 Pavlos Kountouriotis
 •  1929–1935 Alexandros Zaimis
Prime Minister
 •  1924 (first) A. Papanastasiou
 •  1933–1935 (last) Panagis Tsaldaris
Legislature Parliament
 •  Upper Chamber Senate
 •  Lower Chamber Chamber of Deputies
Historical era Interwar period
 •  Republic proclaimed 25 March 1924
 •  Referendum (republic) 13 April 1924
 •  Pangalos dictatorship 24 June 1925
 •  Venizelos election victory 5 July 1928
 •  Venizelist coup attempt March 1935
 •  Kondylis coup 10 October 1935
 •  Referendum (monarchy) 11 November 1935
 •  4th of August Regime 4 August 1936
Currency Drachma

The Second Hellenic Republic (}

}}: Β΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the historiographical term for the political regime of Greece between 1924 and 1935. It followed from the period of the constitutional monarchy under the monarchs of the House of Glücksburg, and lasted until its overthrow in a military coup d'état which restored the monarchy. The Second Republic marks the second period in modern Greek history where Greece was not headed by a king, with the assemblies and provisional governments of the Greek Revolution being regarded as the First Republic.

The Second Republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924, in the aftermath of Greece's defeat by Turkey in the Asia Minor Campaign, which was widely blamed on the royalist government. During its brief existence, the Second Republic proved unstable. Greek society continued to be divided, as it was since the National Schism, between the pro-Republican Venizelists and the monarchists represented by the People's Party, who refused to acknowledge even the legitimacy of the Republic.

The cleavage in society extended to cultural and social issues such as differences over the use of Greek language to architectural styles. To this polarization was added the destabilizing involvement of the military in politics which resulted in several coups and attempted coups. The economy was in ruins following a decade of warfare and was unable to support the 1.5 million refugees from the population exchange with Turkey.

Despite the efforts of the reformist government of George II.


Proclamation of the Second Hellenic Republic. Crowds holding placards depicting Alexandros Hatzikyriakos
Part of a series on the
Part of a map of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent regions by William Faden, March 1785
Greece portal

After the defeat of Greece by the 1924 plebiscite, Greeks voted to create a republic. These events marked the culmination of a process that had begun in 1915 between King Constantine and his political nemesis, Eleftherios Venizelos.

The first President of the Hellenic Republic was Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis, a supporter of Venizelos who resigned after a coup d'etat in 1925. He was succeeded by the coup's leader, General Theodoros Pangalos, who was likewise deposed by the military five months later after embroiling Greece in the War of the Stray Dog. Kountouriotis was reinstated and reelected to the office in 1929, but was forced to resign for health reasons later that year. He was succeeded by Alexandros Zaimis, who served until the restoration of the monarchy in 1935.

Despite a period of stability and sense of well-being under the last government of Eleftherios Venizelos in 1928-1932, the effects of the Panagis Tsaldaris and forced President Zaimis to appoint Kondylis prime minister in his place. Later that day, Kondylis forced Zaimis himself to resign, declared himself regent and abolished the republic. A heavily rigged plebiscite on 3 November which resulted in an implausible 98 percent supporting the return of the monarchy. King George II returned to Athens on 23 November, with Kondylis as prime minister.

See also

External links

  • Hellenic Parliament - Constitutional History of Greece
  • Greece during the Interwar Period, 1923-1940, from the Foundation of the Hellenic World
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.