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Shunzhi Emperor

Shunzhi Emperor
3rd Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Reign 8 October 1643 – 5 February 1661
Coronation 1643
Predecessor Hong Taiji
Regent Dorgon (1643–1650)
Jirgalang (1643–1647)
Qing Emperor of China
Reign 8 November 1644 – 5 February 1661
Predecessor Last reigning Emperor of Inner China from previous dynasty: Chongzhen Emperor
Successor Kangxi Emperor
Born (1638-03-15)15 March 1638
Shengjing, Liaodong
Died 5 February 1661(1661-02-05) (aged 22)
Forbidden City, Beijing, Qing Dynasty
Burial Xiaoling, Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua
Spouse The Demoted Empress
Empress Xiaohuizhang
Empress Xiaokangzhang
Empress Xiaoxian
Issue Niuniu
Fuquan, Prince Yu
Xuanye, Emperor Ren
Prince Rong
Changning, Prince Gong
Longxi, Prince Chun Jing
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Fulin 愛新覺羅福臨
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro hala-i Fulin ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ ᡶᡠᠯᡳᠨ
Posthumous name
Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang
Temple name
Emperor Shizu of Qing
House House of Aisin-Gioro
Father Hong Taiji
Mother Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang

The Shunzhi Emperor[nb 1] (15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661), Nurhaci (1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan.

From 1643 to 1650, political power lay mostly in the hands of Dorgon. Under his leadership, the Qing Empire conquered most of the territory of the fallen Koxinga (1624–1662) and the Prince of Gui (1623–1662) of the Southern Ming dynasty, both of whom would succumb the following year. The Shunzhi Emperor died at the age of 22 of smallpox, a highly contagious disease that was endemic in China, but against which the Manchus had no immunity. He was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, who had already survived smallpox, and who reigned for sixty years under the era name "Kangxi" (hence he was known as the Kangxi Emperor). Because fewer documents have survived from the Shunzhi era than from later eras of the Qing dynasty, the Shunzhi era is a relatively little-known period of Qing history.

"Shunzhi" was the name of this ruler's reign period in Chinese. This title had equivalents in Manchu and Mongolian because the Qing imperial family was Manchu, and ruled over many Mongol tribes that helped the Qing to conquer China. The emperor's personal name was Fulin, and the posthumous name by which he was worshipped at the Imperial Ancestral Temple was Shizu (Wade–Giles: Shih-tsu; Chinese: 世祖).


  • Historical background 1
  • Becoming emperor 2
  • Dorgon's regency (1643–1650) 3
    • A quasi emperor 3.1
    • Settling in the capital 3.2
    • Conquest of China 3.3
  • Transition and personal rule (1651–1661) 4
    • Purging Dorgon's clique 4.1
    • Factional politics and the fight against corruption 4.2
    • Chinese style of rule 4.3
    • Frontiers, tributaries, and foreign relations 4.4
    • Continuous campaigns against the Southern Ming 4.5
    • Personality and relationships 4.6
    • Identification of Qing with China 4.7
  • Death and succession 5
    • Smallpox 5.1
    • The emperor's forged last will 5.2
    • After death 5.3
  • Legacy 6
  • Family 7
    • Ascendants 7.1
    • Empresses and consorts 7.2
    • Children 7.3
      • Sons 7.3.1
      • Daughters 7.3.2
      • Adopted daughters 7.3.3
  • See also 8
  • Footnotes 9
  • Notes 10
  • Works cited 11
    • Main studies 11.1
    • Other works 11.2

Historical background

Black-and-white print of a severe-looking man with long rising eyebrows and a mustache, wearing skin shoes, a round-edged fur cap, and clothing with several folds held together by a sash and surmounted by a fur collar. He is holding a bow in his right hand. Three Chinese characters that read
Depiction of a Jurchen man on a Ming woodblock print dated 1609. The original caption explained that the Jurchens lived near the Changbai Mountains and wore "deerskin shoes and fish-scale clothing."[2]

In the 1580s, when China was ruled by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), a number of Jurchen tribes lived northeast of Ming territory in the region that is now known as China's Northeast, or "Manchuria."[3] In a series of campaigns from the 1580s to the 1610s, Nurhaci (1559–1626), the leader of the Jianzhou Jurchens, unified most Jurchen tribes under his rule.[4] One of his most important reforms was to integrate Jurchen clans under flags of four different colors—yellow, white, red, and blue—each further subdivided into two to form an encompassing social and military system known as the Eight Banners.[5] Nurhaci gave control of these Banners to his sons and grandsons.[6] Around 1612, Nurhaci renamed his clan Aisin Gioro ("golden Gioro"), both to distinguish his family from other Gioro lines and to allude to an earlier dynasty that had been founded by Jurchens, the Jin ("golden") dynasty that had ruled northern China from 1115 to 1234.[7] In 1616 Nurhaci formally announced the foundation of the "Later Jin" dynasty, effectively declaring his independence from the Ming.[8] Over the next few years he wrested most major cities in Liaodong from Ming control.[9] His string of victories ended in February 1626 at the siege of Ningyuan, where Ming commander Yuan Chonghuan defeated him with the help of recently acquired Portuguese cannon.[10] Probably hurt during the battle, Nurhaci died a few months later.[11]

Nurhaci's son and successor Hong Taiji (1592–1643) continued his father's state-building efforts: he concentrated power into his own hands, modeled the Later Jin's government institutions on Chinese ones, and integrated Mongol allies and surrendered Chinese troops into the Eight Banners.[12] In 1629 he led an incursion to the outskirts of Beijing, during which he captured Chinese craftsmen who knew how to cast Portuguese cannon.[13] In 1635 Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchens the "Manchus," and in 1636 changed the name of his polity from "Later Jin" to "Qing."[14] After capturing the last remaining Ming cities in Liaodong, by 1643 the Qing was preparing to seize upon the struggling Ming dynasty, which was crumbling under the combined weight of financial bankruptcy, devastating epidemics, and large-scale bandit uprisings fed by widespread starvation.[15]

Becoming emperor

Full-face painted portrait of a corpulent man with a thin mustachio wearing a red hat and a multilayered yellow robe with dragon decorations, and sitting on a throne mounted on a low podium.
Hong Taiji, whose five-year-old son, Fulin, became the Shunzhi Emperor in 1643

When Hong Taiji died on 21 September 1643 without having named a successor, the fledgling Qing state faced a possibly serious crisis.[16] Several contenders—namely Nurhaci's second and eldest surviving son Banners, Daišan (60) was in charge of the two Red Banners, whereas Hooge (34) had the loyalty of his father's two Yellow Banners.[18]

The decision about who would become the new Qing emperor fell to the Jirgalang (a nephew of Nurhaci who controlled the Bordered Blue Banner) would act as the five-year-old child's regents.[20] Fulin was officially crowned Emperor of the Qing dynasty on 8 October 1643; it was decided that he would reign under the era name "Shunzhi."[21] Because the Shunzhi reign is not well documented, it constitutes a relatively little-known period of Qing history.[22]

Dorgon's regency (1643–1650)

Prince Regent conquered almost all of China.

A quasi emperor

On 17 February 1644, Jirgalang, who was a capable military leader but looked uninterested in managing state affairs, willingly yielded control of all official matters to Dorgon.[23] After an alleged plot by Hooge to undermine the regency was exposed on 6 May of that year, Hooge was stripped of his title of Imperial Prince and his co-conspirators were executed.[24] Dorgon soon replaced Hooge's supporters (mostly from the Yellow Banners) with his own, thus gaining closer control of two more Banners.[25] By early June 1644, he was in firm control of the Qing government and its military.[26]

In early 1644, just as Dorgon and his advisors were pondering how to attack the Battle of Shanhai Pass on 27 May.[32] Li's defeated troops looted Beijing for several days until Li left the capital on 4 June with all the wealth he could carry.[33]

Settling in the capital

Color photograph of a three-level stone structure with railings on each level, viewed from the outside, facing a staircase that leads to the top level.
The circular mound of the Altar of Heaven, where the Shunzhi emperor conducted sacrifices on 30 October 1644, ten days before being officially proclaimed Emperor of China. The ceremony marked the moment when the Qing dynasty seized the Mandate of Heaven.

After six weeks of mistreatment at the hands of rebel troops, the Beijing population sent a party of elders and officials to greet their liberators on 5 June.[34] They were startled when, instead of meeting Wu Sangui and the Ming heir apparent, they saw Dorgon, a horseriding Manchu with his shaved forehead, present himself as the Prince Regent.[35] In the midst of this upheaval, Dorgon installed himself in the Wuying Palace (武英殿), the only building that remained more or less intact after Li Zicheng had set fire to the palace complex on 3 June.[36] Banner troops were ordered not to loot; their discipline made the transition to Qing rule "remarkably smooth."[37] Yet at the same time as he claimed to have come to avenge the Ming, Dorgon ordered that all claimants to the Ming throne (including descendants of the last Ming emperor) should be executed along with their supporters.[38]

On June 7, just two days after entering the city, Dorgon issued special proclamations to officials around the capital, assuring them that if the local population accepted to shave their forehead, wear a queue, and surrender, the officials would be allowed to stay at their post.[39] He had to repeal this command three weeks later after several peasant rebellions erupted around Beijing, threatening Qing control over the capital region.[40]

Dorgon greeted Shunzhi at the gates of Beijing on 19 October 1644.[41] On 30 October the six-year-old monarch performed sacrifices to Heaven and Earth at the Huang shufu shezheng wang 皇叔父攝政王), which left him one step short of claiming the throne for himself.[45]

A black-and-white picture of a stone-paved alley going from bottom right to top left leading to a three-roofed gate and bordered on the right by a line up of small roofed cubicles open on one side.
Examination cells in Beijing. In order to enhance their legitimacy among the Chinese elite, the Qing reestablished the imperial civil service examinations almost as soon as they seized Beijing in 1644.

One of Dorgon's first orders in the new Qing capital was to vacate the entire northern part of Beijing to give it to Bannermen. The Yellow Banners were given the place of honor north of the palace, followed by the White Banners east, the Red Banners west, and the Blue Banners south.[46] This distribution accorded with the order established in the Manchu homeland before the conquest and under which "each of the banners was given a fixed geographical location according to the points of the compass."[47] Despite tax remissions and large-scale building programs designed to facilitate the transition, in 1648 many Chinese civilians still lived among the newly arrived Banner population and there was still animosity between the two groups.[48] Agricultural land outside the capital was also marked off (quan 圈) and given to Qing troops.[49] Former landowners now became tenants who had to pay rent to their absentee Bannermen landlords.[49] This transition in land use caused "several decades of disruption and hardship."[49]

In 1646, Dorgon also ordered that the civil examinations for selecting government officials be reestablished. From then on they were held regularly every three years as under the Ming. In the very first palace examination held under Qing rule in 1646, candidates, most of whom were northern Chinese, were asked how the Manchus and Han Chinese could be made to work together for a common purpose.[50] The 1649 examination inquired about "how Manchus and Han Chinese could be unified so that their hearts were the same and they worked together without division."[51] Under the Shunzhi reign the average number of graduates per session of the metropolitan examination was the highest of the Qing dynasty ("to win more Chinese support"), until 1660 when lower quotas were established.[52]

To promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from Shunzhi allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners, it was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing intermarriage were done away with.[53][54]

Conquest of China

A black-and-white print of an outdoor scene depicting a broken city wall and two destroyed houses, with several corpses lying on the ground (some beheaded), and two men with swords killing unarmed men.
A late-Dodo ordered this massacre to scare other southern Chinese cities into submission. By the late nineteenth century the massacre was used by anti-Qing revolutionaries to arouse anti-Manchu sentiment among the Han Chinese population.[55]

Under the reign of Dorgon—whom historians have variously called "the mastermind of the Qing conquest" and "the principal architect of the great Manchu enterprise"—the Qing subdued almost all of China and pushed loyalist "

Shunzhi Emperor
Born: 15 March 1638 Died: 5 February 1661
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hong Taiji
Emperor of Qing dynasty
Succeeded by
The Kangxi Emperor
Preceded by
The Chongzhen Emperor
Emperor of China

Main studies

  • Dennerline, Jerry (2002), "The Shun-chih Reign", in Peterson, Willard J., Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–119, .  
  • Fang, Chao-ying (1943a), "Fu-lin", in Hummel, Arthur W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912), Washington: .  
  • Struve, Lynn (1988), "The Southern Ming", in Frederic W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, and John King Fairbank (eds.), Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 641–725, .  
  • . In two volumes.  

Other works

  • Bartlett, Beatrice S. (1991), Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723–1820, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, .  
  • Benard, Elisabeth (2004), "The Qianlong emperor and Tibetan Buddhism", in Millward, James A., et al. (eds.), New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde, London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 123–35, .  
  • Berger, Patricia (2003), Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, .  
  • Chang, Chia-feng (2002), "Disease and its Impact on Politics, Diplomacy, and the Military: The Case of Smallpox and the Manchus (1613–1795)", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 57 (2): 177–97,  .
  • Chang, Michael G. (2007), A Court on Horseback: Imperial Touring and the Construction of Qing Rule, 1680–1785, Cambridge (Mass.) and London: Harvard University Asia Center, .  
  • Chayet, Anne (2004), "Architectural wonderland: an empire of fictions", in Millward, James A., et al. (eds.), New Qing Imperial History: The making of Inner Asian empire at Qing Chengde, London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 33–52, .  
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  • Dai, Yingcong (2009), The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, .  
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  • Elman, Benjamin A. (2001), A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, .  
  • Elman, Benjamin A. (2002), "The Social Roles of Literati in Early to Mid-Ch'ing", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 360–427, .  
  • Fang, Chao-ying (1943b), "Šarhûda", in Hummel, Arthur W. (ed.), Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912), Washington: .  
  • Finnane, Antonia (1993), "Yangzhou: A Central Place in the Qing Empire", in Cooke Johnson, Linda, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China, Albany, NY: SUNY Press, pp. 117–50, .  
  • Gates, M. Jean; Fang, Chao-ying (1943), "Hsiao-chuang Wên Huang-hou", in Hummel, Arthur W. (ed.), Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912), Washington: .  
  • Gong, Baoli 宫宝利 (ed.) (2010), Shunzhi shidian 顺治事典 ["Events of the Shunzhi reign"] (in 中文), Beijing: Zijincheng chubanshe 紫禁城出版社 ["Forbidden City Press"], .  
  • Ho, Ping-ti (1962), The Ladder of Success in Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility, 1368–1911, New York: Columbia University Press, .  
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  • Kennedy, George A. (1943), "Minggadari", in Hummel, Arthur W. (ed.), Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912), Washington: .  
  • Kessler, Lawrence D. (1976), K'ang-hsi and the Consolidation of Ch'ing Rule, 1661–1684, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, .  
  • Kim, Kwangmin (2008), "Saintly brokers: Uyghur Muslims, trade, and the making of Central Asia, 1696–1814", Ph.D. diss., History Department, University of California, Berkeley, .  
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  • Lach, Donald F.; van Kley, Edwin J. (1994), Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III, A Century of Advance, Book Four, East Asia, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, .  
  • Larsen, E. S.; Numata, Tomoo (1943), "Mêng Ch'iao-fang", in Hummel, Arthur W. (ed.), Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912), Washington: .  
  • Li, Wai-yee (2010), "Early Qing to 1723", in (2-volume set).  
  • Li, Zhiting 李治亭, editor in chief (2003), Qingchao tongshi: Shunzhi fenjuan (in 中文), 清朝通史: 順治分卷 ["General History of the Qing Dynasty: Shunzhi Volume"], Beijing: Zijincheng chubanshe 紫禁城出版社 ["Fordidden City Press"], .  
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  • Man-Cheong, Iona D. (2004), The Class of 1761: Examinations, State, and Elites in Eighteenth-Century China, Stanford: Stanford University Press, .  
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  • Naquin, Susan (2000), Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400–1900, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, .  
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  • (Chinese) Qingshi gao 清史稿 ["Draft History of Qing"]. Edited by Zhao Erxun 趙爾巽 et al. Completed in 1927. Citing from 1976–77 edition by Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, in 48 volumes with continuous pagination.
  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998), The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, .  
  • Rossabi, Morris (1979), "Muslim and Central Asian Revolts", in Spence, Jonathan D.; Wills, John E., Jr., From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 167–99, .  
  • Roth Li, Gertraude (2002), "State Building Before 1644", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1:The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 9–72, .  
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  • Spence, Jonathan D. (1999), The Search for Modern China, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, .  
  • Spence, Jonathan D. (2002), "The K'ang-hsi Reign", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–82, .  
  • Standaert, Nicolas (2008), The Interweaving of Rituals: Funerals in the Cultural Exchange Between China and Europe, Seattle: University of Washington Press, .  
  • Turayev, Vadim [Вадим Тураев] (1995), "О ХАРАКТЕРЕ КУПЮР В ПУБЛИКАЦИЯХ ДОКУМЕНТОВ РУССКИХ ЗЕМЛЕПРОХОДЦЕВ XVII ["Regarding omissions in the publication of documents by seventeenth-century Russian explorers"]", in A.R. Artemyev (ed.), Русские первопроходцы на Дальнем Востоке в XVII — XIX вв. (Историко-археологические исследования) ["Russian pioneers in the Far East in the 17th–19th centuries: historical and archaeological research"], volume 2 (in Русский), Vladivostok: Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, Dalʹnevostochnoe otd-nie, .  
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  • Wakeman, Frederic (1984), "Romantics, Stoics, and Martyrs in Seventeenth-Century China", Journal of Asian Studies 43 (4): 631–65,  .
  • Wills, John E. (1984), Embassies and Illusions: Dutch and Portuguese Envoys to K'ang-hsi, 1666–1687, Cambridge (Mass.) and London: Harvard University Press, .  
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  • Zarrow, Peter (2004a), "Historical Trauma: Anti-Manchuism and Memories of Atrocity in Late Qing China", History and Memory 16 (2): 67–107,  .
  • Zarrow, Peter (trans.) (2004b), "Qianlong's inscription on the founding of the Temple of the Happiness and Longevity of Mt Sumeru (Xumifushou miao)", in Millward, James A., et al. (eds.), New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde, London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 185–87, .  
  • Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century". Modern China (Sage Publications) 32 (Number 1): 3.  
  • Zhou, Ruchang [周汝昌] (2009), Between Noble and Humble: Cao Xueqin and the Dream of the Red Chamber, edited by Ronald R. Gray and Mark S. Ferrara, translated by Liangmei Bao and Kyongsook Park, New York: Peter Lang, .  

Works cited

  1. ^ Qingshi gao ("Draft History of Qing"), chapter 5, p. 163.
  2. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 34.
  3. ^ Roth Li 2002, pp. 25–26.
  4. ^ Roth Li 2002, pp. 29–30 (campaigns of Jurchen unification) and 40 (seizing of patents).
  5. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 34.
  6. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 36.
  7. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 28.
  8. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 37.
  9. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 42.
  10. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 46.
  11. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 51.
  12. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 63.
  13. ^ Roth Li 2002, pp. 29–30.
  14. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 63.
  15. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 64 (preparing to attack the Ming); Spence 1999, pp. 21–24 (late Ming crises).
  16. ^ Oxnam 1975 (p. 38), Wakeman 1985 (p. 297), and Gong 2010 (p. 51) all place Hong Taiji's death on September 21 (Chongde 崇德 8.8.9). Dennerline 2002 (p. 74) gives the date as September 9.
  17. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 98.
  18. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 99 (about the White and Yellow banners); Dennerline 2002, p. 79 (table with age of the imperial princes and the banners they controlled).
  19. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 77 (convening of the Deliberative Council to discuss Hong Taiji's succession); Hucker 1985, p. 266 (Deliberative Council as "the most influential shaper of policy in the early Ch'ing" [i.e., Qing]; Bartlett 1991, p. 1 (the Grand Council rose "to the overlordship of almost the entire central government of the Chinese empire" in the 1720s and 1730s).
  20. ^ a b Dennerline 2002, p. 78.
  21. ^ Fang 1943a, p. 255.
  22. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 73.
  23. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 299.
  24. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 300, note 231.
  25. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 79.
  26. ^ Roth Li 2002, p. 71.
  27. ^ Mote 1999, p. 809.
  28. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 304; Dennerline 2002, p. 81.
  29. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 290.
  30. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 304.
  31. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 308.
  32. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 311–12.
  33. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 313; Mote 1999, p. 817.
  34. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 313.
  35. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 314 (were all expecting Wu and the heir apparent) and 315 (reaction to seeing Dorgon instead).
  36. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 315.
  37. ^ Naquin 2000, p. 289.
  38. ^ Mote 1999, p. 818.
  39. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 416; Mote 1999, p. 828.
  40. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 420–22 (which explains these matters and claims that the order was repealed by edict on 25 June). Gong 2010, p. 84 gives the date as 28 June.
  41. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 857.
  42. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 858.
  43. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 858 and 860 ("According to the emperor's speechwriter, who was probably Fan Wencheng, Dorgon even 'surpassed' (guo) the revered Duke of Zhou because 'The Uncle Prince also led the Grand Army through Shanhai Pass to smash two hundred thousand bandit soldiers, and then proceeded to take Yanjing, pacifying the Central Xia. He invited Us to come to the capital and received Us as a great guest'.").
  44. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 860–61, and p. 861, note 31.
  45. ^ a b Wakeman 1985, p. 861.
  46. ^ See maps in Naquin 2000, p. 356 and Elliott 2001, p. 103.
  47. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 170.
  48. ^ Naquin 2000, pp. 289–91.
  49. ^ a b c Naquin 2000, p. 291.
  50. ^ Elman 2002, p. 389.
  51. ^ Cited in Elman 2002, pp. 389–90.
  52. ^ Man-Cheong 2004, p. 7, Table 1.1 (number of graduates per session under each Qing reign); Wakeman 1985, p. 954 (reason for the high quotas); Elman 2001, p. 169 (lower quotas in 1660).
  53. ^ Wang 2004, pp. 215-216 & 219-221.
  54. ^ Walthall 2008, p. 140-141.
  55. ^ Zarrow 2004a, passim.
  56. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 483 (Li reestablished headquarters in Xi'an) and 501 (Hebei and Shandong revolts, new campaigns against Li).
  57. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 501–7.
  58. ^ Dorgon's brother Dodo received the command to lead this "southern expedition" (nan zheng 南征) on April 1 (Wakeman 1985, p. 521). He set out from Xi'an on that very day (Struve 1988, p. 657). The Ming Prince of Fu had been crowned as emperor on 19 June 1644 (Wakeman 1985, p. 346; Struve 1988, p. 644).
  59. ^ For examples of the factional struggles that weakened the Hongguang court, see Wakeman 1985, pp. 523–43. Some defections are explained in Wakeman 1985, pp. 543–45.
  60. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 522 (taking of Xuzhou; Struve 1988, p. 657 (converging on Yangzhou).
  61. ^ Struve 1988, p. 657.
  62. ^ Finnane 1993, p. 131.
  63. ^ Struve 1988, p. 657 (purpose of the massacre was to terrorize Jiangnan); Zarrow 2004a, passim (late-Qing uses of the Yangzhou massacre).
  64. ^ Struve 1988, p. 660.
  65. ^ Struve 1988, p. 660 (capture of Suzhou and Hangzhou by early July 1645; new frontier); Wakeman 1985, p. 580 (capture of the emperor around 17 June, and later death in Beijing).
  66. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 647; Struve 1988, p. 662; Dennerline 2002, p. 87 (which calls this edict "the most untimely promulgation of [Dorgon's] career."
  67. ^ Kuhn 1990, p. 12.
  68. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 647 ("From the Manchus' perspective, the command to cut one's hair or lose one's head not only brought rulers and subjects together into a single physical resemblance; it also provided them with a perfect loyalty test").
  69. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 648–49 (officials and literati) and 650 (common men). In the Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius is cited to say that "a person's body and hair, being gifts from one's parents, are not to be damaged: this is the beginning of filial piety" (身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也). Prior to the Qing dynasty, adult Han Chinese men customarily did not cut their hair, but instead wore it in a topknot.
  70. ^ Struve 1988, pp. 662–63 ("broke the momentum of the Qing conquest"); Wakeman 1975, p. 56 ("the hair-cutting order, more than any other act, engendered the Kiangnan [Jiangnan] resistance of 1645"); Wakeman 1985, p. 650 ("the rulers' effort to make Manchus and Han one unified 'body' initially had the effect of unifying upper- and lower-class natives in central and south China against the interlopers").
  71. ^ Wakeman 1975, p. 78.
  72. ^ Wakeman 1975, p. 83.
  73. ^ a b Wakeman 1985, p. 674.
  74. ^ Struve 1988, pp. 665 (on the Prince of Tang) and 666 (on the Prince of Lu).
  75. ^ Struve 1988, pp. 667–69 (for their failure to cooperate), 669-74 (for the deep financial and tactical problems that beset both regimes).
  76. ^ Struve 1988, p. 675.
  77. ^ a b Struve 1988, p. 676.
  78. ^ a b c Wakeman 1985, p. 737.
  79. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 738.
  80. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 765–66.
  81. ^ a b Wakeman 1985, p. 767.
  82. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 767–68.
  83. ^ Dai 2009, p. 17.
  84. ^ Dai 2009, pp. 17–18.
  85. ^ a b c Rossabi 1979, p. 191.
  86. ^ Larsen & Numata 1943, p. 572 (Meng Qiaofang, death of rebel leaders); Rossabi 1979, p. 192.
  87. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 47 ("intense factional rivalry," "among the fiercest and most complex of the early Ch'ing"); Wakeman 1985, pp. 892–93 (date and cause of Dorgon's death) and 907 (second "great wave of Qing institutional reform" from 1652 to 1655).
  88. ^ Oxnam 1975, pp. 47–48.
  89. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 47.
  90. ^ a b c d Oxnam 1975, p. 48.
  91. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 79 (Manchu name; "personal property of the emperor"); Oxnam 1975, p. 48 (timing and purpose of Jirgalang's move).
  92. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 49.
  93. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 106.
  94. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 107.
  95. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 106 (dismissal of Feng Quan in 1651); Wakeman 1985, pp. 865–72 (for the story of the failed purge of Feng Quan in 1645).
  96. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 107 ("coalition of literary societies"); Wakeman 1985, p. 865.
  97. ^ Dennerline 2002, pp. 108–9.
  98. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 109.
  99. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 958.
  100. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 959–74 (discussion of these cases).
  101. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 976 (April 1654, Ning Wanwo) and 977–81 (long discussion of Chen Mingxia's "crimes").
  102. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 985–86.
  103. ^ Gong 2010, p. 295 gives the date as 30 November 1657.
  104. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 1004, note 38.
  105. ^ Ho 1962, pp. 191–92.
  106. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 1004–5.
  107. ^ Dennerline 2002, pp. 109 (topics of discussions with Chen Mingxia) and 112 (on Wang Xi).
  108. ^ Mair 1985, p. 326 ("bare bones"); Oxnam 1975, pp. 115–16.
  109. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 113.
  110. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 931 ("Thirteen Offices"); Rawski 1998, p. 163 ("Thirteen Eunuch Bureaus," supervised by Manchus).
  111. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 113; Oxnam 1975, pp. 52–53.
  112. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 931 (composed edicts); Oxnam 1975, p. 52.
  113. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 52 (isolated emperor from his officials); Kessler 1976, p. 27.
  114. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 1016; Kessler 1976, p. 27; Oxnam 1975, p. 54.
  115. ^ Oxnam 1975, pp. 52–53.
  116. ^ Kessler 1976, p. 27; Rawski 1998, p. 163 (specific date).
  117. ^ In 1951 Italian scholar Luciano Petech was the first to hypothesize that these emissaries came from Turfan, not from the Moghul India (Petech 1951, pp. 124–27, cited in Lach & van Kley 1994, plate 315). Kim 2008, p. 109 discusses this Turfan embassy in some detail.
  118. ^ a b c Wills 1984, p. 40.
  119. ^ Kim 2008, p. 109.
  120. ^ Kim 2008, p. 109 ("without solicitation"; location of trade); Rossabi 1979, p. 190 (within the constraints of the old tributary system).
  121. ^ Rossabi 1979, p. 192.
  122. ^ Kim 2008, p. 111.
  123. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 250 (unification or religious and secular rule).
  124. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 251 (beginning of Qing patronage of Tibetan Buddhism).
  125. ^ Zarrow 2004b, p. 187, note 5 (political reasons for inviting the Dalai Lama).
  126. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 929, note 81 (site of Qionghua Island and Qubilai's former palace); Naquin 2000, p. 309 (preparation for Lama's visit, "bell-shaped" temple).
  127. ^ Western historians do not seem to agree on the date of the Dalai Lama's visit: see Wakeman 1985, p. 929, note 81 ("1651"); Crossley 1999, p. 239 ("1651"); Naquin 2000, pp. 311 and 473 ("1652"); Benard 2004, p. 134, note 23 ("1652"); Zarrow 2004b, p. 187, note 5 ("between 1652 and 1653"); Rawski 1998, p. 252 ("1653"); Berger 2003, p. 57. The Qing Veritable Records (Shilu 實錄) cited on p. 476 of Li 2003, however, clearly indicate that the Dalai Lama arrived in Beijing on 14 January 1653 (on the 15th day of the last month of the 9th year of Shunzhi) and left the capital sometime in the second month of the 10th year of Shunzhi (March 1653).
  128. ^ Naquin 2000, p. 473; Chayet 2004, p. 40 (date of the beginning of the construction of the Potala).
  129. ^ a b c d Fang 1943b, p. 632.
  130. ^ Turayev 1995.
  131. ^ Kennedy 1943, p. 576 (Mongol); Fang 1943b, p. 632 (victory, but "yielded no permanent success").
  132. ^ a b Struve 1988, p. 704.
  133. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 973, note 194.
  134. ^ a b c Dennerline 2002, p. 117.
  135. ^ Struve 1988, p. 710.
  136. ^ Spence 2002, p. 136.
  137. ^ a b c d e Dennerline 2002, p. 118.
  138. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 1048–49.
  139. ^ Spence 2002, pp. 136–37.
  140. ^ Spence 2002, p. 146.
  141. ^ a b c d Gates & Fang 1943, p. 300.
  142. ^ Wu 1979, p. 36.
  143. ^ a b Wu 1979, pp. 15–16.
  144. ^ Wu 1979, p. 16.
  145. ^ a b Spence 1969, p. 19.
  146. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 54; Wakeman 1985, p. 858, note 24.
  147. ^ Spence 1969, p. 19; Wakeman 1985, p. 929, note 82.
  148. ^ Spence 1969, p. 19 (list of privileges); Fang 1943a, p. 258 (date of conversion to Buddhism).
  149. ^ a b Zhou 2009, pp. 12.
  150. ^ Wakeman 1984, p. 631, note 2.
  151. ^ Zhao 2006, p. 7.
  152. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 205.
  153. ^ Spence 2002, p. 125. Note that Xuanye was born in May 1654, and was therefore less than seven years old. Both Spence 2002 and Oxnam 1975 (p. 1) nonetheless claim that he was "seven years old." Dennerline 2002 (p. 119) and Rawski 1998 (p. 99) indicate that he was "not yet seven years old." In Chinese documents concerning the succession, Xuanye was said to be eight sui (Oxnam 1975, p. 62).
  154. ^ Perdue 2005, p. 47 ("Seventy to 80 percent of those infected died"); Chang 2002, p. 196 (most feared disease among the Manchus).
  155. ^ Chang 2002, p. 180.
  156. ^ a b Chang 2002, p. 181.
  157. ^ Naquin 2000, p. 311 (Southern Park used as hunting ground); Chang 2002, pp. 181 (number of outbreaks) and 192 (Dorgon building a bidousuo in the Southern Park).
  158. ^ Naquin 2000, p. 296 (on rule forcing Chinese residents to move out).
  159. ^ Oxnam 1975, pp. 48 (on the four men helping Jirgalang), 50 (date of promulgation of the edict of succession), and 62 (on appointment of the four regents); Kessler 1976, p. 21 (on helping to get rid of Dorgon's faction in the early 1650s).
  160. ^ Historians agree that the Shunzhi will was either deeply modified or forged altogether. See for instance Oxnam 1975, pp. 62–63 and 205-7; Kessler 1976, p. 20; Wakeman 1985, p. 1015; Dennerline 2002, p. 119; and Spence 2002, p. 126.
  161. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 52.
  162. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 51 (on proclamations in which the emperor "publicly degraded himself") and 52 (on the centrality of these policies to Shunzhi's rule).
  163. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 63.
  164. ^ Spence 2002, p. 125.
  165. ^ Fang 1943a, p. 258 (emperor became a devout Buddhist in 1657); Dennerline 2002, p. 118 (emperor had become devoted to Buddhism "by 1659"; monks living in the palace).
  166. ^ See Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang and whether the Yongzheng Emperor usurped the succession to his father, the Kangxi Emperor.
  167. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 205 (for monk's diary, citing an older study by Chinese historian Meng Sen 孟森); Spence 2002, p. 125 (on the two suicides).
  168. ^ Standaert 2008, pp. 73–74.
  169. ^ Standaert 2008, p. 75.
  170. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 477, note 122 (citing several studies and primary documents). By contrast, Hong Taiji and Shunzhi's two empresses had been cremated (Elliott 2001, p. 264).
  171. ^ a b c Fang 1943a, p. 258.
  172. ^ Chang 2007, p. 86.
  173. ^ Kessler 1976, p. 26; Oxnam 1975, p. 63.
  174. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 65.
  175. ^ Oxnam 1975, p. 71 (details of membership in the Deliberative Council); Spence 2002, pp. 126–27 (other institutions).
  176. ^ Kessler 1976, pp. 31–32 (Ming history case), 33–36 (tax arrears case), and 39–46 (clearing of the coast).
  177. ^ Spence 2002, p. 133.
  178. ^ Kessler 1976, p. 30 (restored in 1670).
  179. ^ a b c Spence 2002, p. 122.
  180. ^ Spence 2002, pp. 140–43 (details of the campaigns).
  181. ^ Li 2010, p. 153.
  182. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 113 (use of variolation starting in 1681).
  183. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 73 (citation); Wakeman 1985, p. 1125 (institutional foundation, awesome proportion).
  184. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 1127.
  185. ^ a b Rawski 1998, p. 113.
  186. ^ Dennerline 2002, p. 75 (for table of Aisin Gioro men in the early Qing, and ranking of Fulin as Hong Taiji's ninth son).
  187. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 135 (for personal name Bumbutai, the name of her father, the date when she became empress dowager, and her posthumous title).
  188. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8899.
  189. ^ See table in Rawski 1998, p. 141.
  190. ^ a b c d e Rawski 1998, p. 129.
  191. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8905.
  192. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8906.
  193. ^ Crossley 1999, p. 56.
  194. ^ a b Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8908.
  195. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 87.
  196. ^ See table in Rawski 1998, p. 142.
  197. ^ See table in Rawski 1998, p. 112.
  198. ^ Date of birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 127, Shunzhi 8.11.乙亥 (1st). Date of death: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 128, Shunzhi 9.1.壬寅 (30th).
  199. ^ a b c d e f g h The mother of each of the emperor's sons is named in Qingshi gao, ch. 219, p. 9052.
  200. ^ Date of birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 135, Shunzhi 10.7.庚戌 (17th). Date of death: Qingshi gao, ch. 8, p. 263, Kangxi 42.6.壬寅 (28th).
  201. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 6, p. 174, Kangxi 6.1.己丑 (14th), i.e., 6 February 1667.
  202. ^ Birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 150, Shunzhi 14.10.丙子 (7th). Death: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 151; Shunzhi 15.1.辛酉 (24th). Died without a name: Qingshi gao, ch. 163, p. 5068.
  203. ^ Li 2003, pp. 594–95.
  204. ^ Birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 150, Shunzhi 14.11.壬寅 (4th). Death: Qingshi gao, ch. 8, p. 263, Kangxi 42.6.辛巳 (7th).
  205. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 6, p. 180: Kangxi 10.1.癸酉 (21st), i.e., 1 March 1671.
  206. ^ Birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 156, Shunzhi 16.11.戊寅 (21st). Death: Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8910.
  207. ^ Birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, pp. 158–59, Shunzhi 17.4.丙午 (22nd). Death: Qingshi gao, ch. 6, p. 200, Kangxi 18.7.丁未 (15th).
  208. ^ Date when he became prince: Kangxi 13.1.庚寅 (25th), i.e., 2 March 1674 (Qingshi gao, ch. 6, p. 186). Posthumous reference: Qingshi gao, ch. 219, p. 9057.
  209. ^ Birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 161, Shunzhi 17.12.甲辰 (23rd). Death: Qingshi gao, ch. 214, p. 8910.
  210. ^ a b c d Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5278.
  211. ^ a b Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5278. Date of birth: 10th year of Shunzhi, 12th month, which lasted from 18 January and 16 February 1654.
  212. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 148 (year); Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5278 (name, clan, and date of death of husband).
  213. ^ a b Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5279. As were two of her sisters, this princess was born in the 12th month of the eleventh year of Shunzhi, which lasted from 8 January to 5 February 1655. Death: 12th month of 18th year of Shunzhi, which lasted from 20 January to 17 February 1662).
  214. ^ a b c d Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5279.
  215. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5279. As were two of her sisters, this princess was born in the 12th month of the eleventh year of Shunzhi, which lasted from 8 January to 5 February 1655. Death: 12th month of 17th year of Shunzhi, that is, sometime between 1 and 29 January 1661.
  216. ^ Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5279. She died in the 11th month of the 30th year of Kangxi, which overlapped between December 1691 and January 1692.
  217. ^ a b Qingshi gao, ch. 166, p. 5280.


  1. ^ Chinese: 順治帝; pinyin: Shùnzhìdì; Wade–Giles: Shun4-chih4 Ti4; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; Mongolian: Eyebeer Zasagch Khaan


See also

  • Second-rank princess with no known title (1648–1691/92), second daughter of Shunzhi's half-brother, Hong Taiji's fifth son Šose (硕塞; 1629–1655).[216] Married in 1660 to Shang Kexi's son Shang Zhilong (尚之隆).[214]
  • Second-rank princess Roujia 柔嘉 (1652–1673), second daughter of Jirgalang's second son Jidu (濟度; 1633–1660). Married in 1663 to Geng Zhongming's (耿仲明; 1604–1649) grandson Geng Juzhong (耿聚忠; 1650–1687).[217]
  • Second-rank princess Duanmin 端敏 (1653–1729), second daughter of Yolo (岳樂; 1625–1689), fourth son of Qing founder Nurhaci's seventh son Abatai. Married in 1670 to Bandi (班第; d. 1710), a Mongol of the Borjigit clan.[217]

The names of the emperor's adoptive daughters, who were all second daughters of members of the Qing imperial clan, were titles, not personal names.[190]

Adopted daughters

  • 1st daughter (1652–1653).[210] Born to Consort Chen 陳.[210]
  • 2nd daughter (1654–1685): second-rank Princess (M.: hošoi gungju) Gongyi Chang (Ch.: heshuo Gongyi Chang gongzhu 和碩恭懿長公主).[211] Born to Consort Yang 楊.[210] Married in 1667 to Manchu Nerdu (訥爾杜; d. 1676), of the Guwalgiya clan.[212]
  • 3rd daughter (1654–1658).[211] Born to Consort Ba 巴.[210]
  • 4th daughter (1655–1662).[213] Born to Consort Usu 烏蘇.[214]
  • 5th daughter (1655–1661).[215] Born to Consort Wang 王.[214]
  • 6th daughter (1655–1662).[213] Born to Consort Nala 納喇.[214]

Before the Qing court moved to Beijing in 1644, Manchu women used to have personal names, but after 1644 these names "disappear from the genealogical and archival records."[190] Only after their betrothal were imperial daughters given a title and rank, by which they then became known.[190] Although five of the Shunzhi Emperor's six daughters died in infancy or childhood, they all appear in the Aisin Gioro genealogy.[190]


  1. Niuniu 牛鈕 (Manchu: Nionio; 13 December 1651 – 9 March 1652).[198] Born to Consort Ba 巴.[199]
  2. Fuquan 福全 (Fuciowan; 8 September 1653 – 10 August 1703).[200] Born to Consort Ningyi 寧懿 of the Donggo clan.[199] Became Prince Yu (裕親王) in 1667.[201]
  3. Xuanye 玄燁 (Hiowanyei; 4 May 1654 – 20 December 1722), who later became the Kangxi Emperor.[194] Born to Empress Xiaokangzhang.[199]
  4. 4th son (12 November 1657 – 25 February 1658), who died before he was given a name.[202] Born to Imperial Noble Consort Donggo.[199] Was posthumously granted the title of Prince Rong (榮親王).[203]
  5. Changning 常寧 (Cangning; 8 December 1657 – 20 July 1703).[204] Born to Consort Chen 陳.[199] Became Prince Gong (恭親王) in 1671.[205]
  6. Qishou 奇授 (Kišeo; 3 January 1660 – unknown date, at the age of seven sui).[206] Born to Consort Tang 唐.[199]
  7. Longxi 隆禧 (Lunghi; 30 May 1660 – 20 August 1679).[207] Born to Consort Niu 鈕.[199] Became Prince Chun (純親王) in 1674; posthumouly called Prince Chun Jing (純靖親王).[208] He fathered a son who died heirless.[171]
  8. Yonggan 永幹 (Yunggan; 23 January 1661 – unknown date, at the age of eight sui).[209] Born to Consort Muktu 穆克圖.[199]


Full-face-view color painting of the head and shoulders of a young man wearing a two-tiered red cap with a white edge, a necklace made of red beads except for two larger blue beads each surrounded by two white beads, and wearing a yellow robe covered with dragon-and-clouds patterns in green, blue, and red.
Shunzhi's third son Xuanye after he had become the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722).

Eleven of Shunzhi's thirty-two spouses bore him a total of fourteen children,[196] but only four sons (Fuquan, Xuanye, Changning, and Longxi) and one daughter (Princess Gongyi Chang) lived to be old enough to marry. Unlike later Qing emperors, the names of Shunzhi's sons did not include a generational character.[197]


  • First Empress: the Demoted Empress, from the Borjigit clan of the Khorchin Mongols; niece of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.[191] She was made Empress in 1651, but the monarch disliked her so much that he had her demoted in 1653.[141]
  • Second Empress: Empress Xiaohuizhang (d. 1718), also from the Borjigit clan. She was named Empress in 1654.[141] After the emperor's death in 1661 she was named Empress Dowager Ciren (慈仁).[192] Xiaohuizhang is her posthumous name (not to be confused with the emperor's mother, Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang).
  • Concubine (1640–1663) from the Tong (佟) clan, a "Nikan"—Manchu name for "Han"—family of Jurchen origin they had lived among the Han Chinese for many generations and had been assimilated into Ming dynasty Han Chinese society in Fushun in Liaoning, and therefore were regarded as Han (Nikan) by the Manchu and registered into a Han Banner instead of a Manchu Banner.[193] She was made Empress Dowager Cihe (慈和) when her son Xuanye became the Kangxi Emperor in 1661, and is known posthumously as Empress Xiaokangzhang.[194] After the Tong petitioned the Qing to transfer them into a Manchu Banner, in 1688 the Tong clan was renamed Tunggiya and was from then on considered to be Manchu.[195]
  • Imperial Noble Consort from the Donggo clan (1639–1660), posthumously raised to Empress Xiaoxian. The Emperor was deeply in love with her and was very grieved when she died soon after their first son (Shunzhi's fourth) had died in infancy.[143] He died of smallpox shortly thereafter.

Although only nineteen empresses and consorts are recorded for Shunzhi in the Aisin Gioro genealogy made by the Imperial Clan Court, burial records show that he had at least thirty-two of them.[189] Eleven bore him children. There were two empresses in his reign, both relatives of his mother the empress dowager. After the 1644 conquest, imperial consorts and empresses were usually known by their titles and by the name of their patrilineal clan.[190]

Empresses and consorts

  • Paternal grandfather: Nurhaci (1559–1626), the retrospectively identified founder of the Qing dynasty.[185]
  • Paternal grandmother: Monggo (1573–1603), of the Manchu Yehenara clan; consort of Nurhaci; posthumously known as Empress Xiaocigao.[188]
Full-face-view painting of a smiling young woman with thin eyebrows, thin eyes, and a thin mouth, wearing a two-tiered black-and-red cap adorned with five downward-looking golden birds with inlaid pearls and stones, and wearing a number of colorful necklaces on a multicolored robe with five-clawed yellow dragons and intricate cloud patterns. She is sitting on a cushion posed on a golden throne decorated with phenixes and inlaid with precious stones.
Empress Xiaohuizhang, a Khorchin Mongol just like Shunzhi's mother, became the emperor's second Empress Consort in 1654.

  • Father: Hong Taiji (1592–1643), emperor of the Qing dynasty, of whom Fulin was the ninth son.[186]
  • Mother: Bumbutai (1613–1688), daughter of Jaisang (寨桑), a Khorchin Mongol prince of the Borjigit clan; titled "Consort Zhuang" from 1636 to 1643, she became empress dowager after her son was enthroned in 1643, and is known posthumously as Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.[187]

The Shunzhi Emperor was born in the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, the Qing imperial family.[185]


Three-quarter-view painting of the head of a woman with black hair, small eyes, thin eyebrows, a chubby face, a double chin, and three partially visible yellow hoop earrings on her right ear. She is wearing a yellow garment with a blue-edged round collar, whose folds are fastened together by a small, round, pale-yellow button.
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, who was an influential political figure during the reigns of both her son, the Shunzhi Emperor, and her grandson, the Kangxi Emperor.


After the Kangxi Emperor managed to imprison Oboi in 1669, he reverted many of the regents' policies.[177] He restored institutions his father had favored, including a [183] Ironically, however, the prolonged Pax Manchurica that followed the Kangxi consolidation made the Qing fatefully unprepared to face aggressive and well-armed European powers in the nineteenth century.[184]

The fake will in which the Shunzhi emperor had supposedly expressed regret for abandoning Manchu traditions gave authority to the nativist policies of the Kangxi Emperor's four regents.[173] Citing the testament, Oboi and the other regents quickly abolished the Thirteen Eunuch Bureaus.[174] Over the next few years, they enhanced the power of the Imperial Household Department, which was run by Manchus and their bondservants, eliminated the Hanlin Academy, and limited membership in the Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers to Manchus and Mongols.[175] The regents also adopted aggressive policies toward the Qing's Chinese subjects: they executed dozens of people and punished thousands of others in the wealthy Jiangnan region for literary dissent and tax arrears, and forced the coastal population of southeast China to move inland in order to starve the Taiwan-based Kingdom of Tungning run by descendants of Koxinga.[176]

A painting in which a yellowish river flows diagonally from the bottom left to the top right, with one road on each side. On the side of both roads are gray-roofed houses. Those on the other side of the river have counters that open directly on the river. There are dozens of people dressed mostly in blue on both roads and crossing a bridge in the foreground. Several barges with canopies are on the water.
The Kangxi Emperor's three "southern tours" in the Jiangnan region—1684, 1689 (here depicted), and 1699—asserted the prestige and confidence of the newly solidifed Qing dynasty a few years after it defeated the Three Feudatories.[172]


After being kept in the Forbidden City for 27 days of mourning, on 3 March 1661 the emperor's corpse was transported in a lavish procession to Jingshan 景山 (a hillock just north of the Forbidden City), after which a large amount of precious goods were burned as funeral offerings.[168] Only two years later, in 1653, was the body transported to its final resting place.[169] Contrary to Manchu customs at the time, which usually dictated that a deceased person should be cremated, the Shunzhi Emperor was buried.[170] He was interred in what later came to be known as the Eastern Qing Tombs, 125 kilometers (75 miles) northeast of Beijing, one of two Qing imperial cemeteries.[171] His tomb is part of the Xiaoling (孝陵) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Hiyoošungga Munggan), which was the first mausoleum to be erected on that site.[171]

Because court statements did not clearly announce the cause of the emperor's death, rumors soon started to circulate that he had not died but in fact retired to a Buddhist monastery to live anonymously as a monk, either out of grief for the death of his beloved consort, or because of a coup by the Manchu nobles his will had named as regents.[164] These rumors seemed not so incredible because the emperor had become a fervent follower of Chan Buddhism in the late 1650s, even letting monks move into the imperial palace.[165] Modern Chinese historians have considered Shunzhi's possible retirement as one of the three mysterious cases of the early Qing.[166] But much circumstantial evidence—including an account by one of these monks that the emperor's health greatly deteriorated in early February 1661 because of smallpox, and the fact that a concubine and an Imperial Bodyguard committed suicide to accompany the emperor in burial—suggests that Shunzhi's death was not staged.[167]

After death

[163], which lasted from 1661 to 1669.Oboi regency The will as it was formulated gave "the mantle of imperial authority" to the four regents, and served to support their pro-Manchu policies during the period known as the [162] Though the emperor had often issued self-deprecating edicts during his reign, the policies his will rejected had been central to his government since he had assumed personal rule in the early 1650s.[161] The emperor's will expressed his regret about his Chinese-style ruling (his reliance on eunuchs and his favoritism toward Chinese officials), his neglect of Manchu nobles and traditions, and his headstrong devotion to his consort rather than to his mother.[160] before promulgating it.testament It is difficult to determine whether Shunzhi had really named these four Manchu nobles as regents, because they and Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang clearly tampered with the emperor's [159] The emperor's last will, which was made public on the evening of 5 February, appointed four regents for his young son:

Full-face painted portrait of a severe-looking sitting man wearing a black-and-red round cap adorned with a peacock feather and dressed in dark blue robes decorated with four-clawed golden dragons.
An official court portrait of Oboi, who on 5 February 1661 was named as the main regent to the newly enthroned Kangxi Emperor, who was only seven years old.

The emperor's forged last will

The Manchus feared smallpox more than any other disease because they had no [157] Despite this and other precautions—such as rules forcing Chinese residents to move out of the city when they contracted smallpox—the young monarch still succumbed to that illness.[158]

In September 1660, Consort Donggo, the Shunzhi Emperor's favourite consort, suddenly died as a result of grief over the loss of a child.[137] Overwhelmed with grief, the emperor fell into dejection for months, until he contracted smallpox on 2 February 1661.[137] On 4 February 1661, officials Wang Xi (王熙, 1628–1703; the emperor's confidant) and Margi (a Manchu) were called to the emperor's bedside to record his last will.[152] On the same day, his seven-year-old third son Xuanye was chosen to be his successor, probably because he had already survived smallpox.[153] The emperor died on 5 February 1661 in the Forbidden City at the age of twenty-two.[137]


Grainy photograph of twelve slightly elongated round lumps clustered together.
Electron micrograph of the smallpox virus, against which the Manchus had no immunity. The Shunzhi Emperor died of it, and his young successor, Xuanye, was chosen because he had already survived it.

Death and succession

The Qing Emperors since Shunzhi onward identified China and the Qing as the same, and in treaties and diplomatic papers the Qing called itself "China".[151]

Identification of Qing with China

The emperor developed a good command of Chinese that allowed him to manage matters of state and to appreciate Chinese arts such as calligraphy and drama.[149] One of his favorite texts was "Rhapsody of a Myriad Sorrows" (Wan chou qu 萬愁曲), by Gui Zhuang (歸莊; 1613–1673), who was a close friend of anti-Qing intellectuals Gu Yanwu and Wan Shouqi (萬壽祺; 1603–1652).[150] "Quite passionate and attach[ing] great importance to qing (love)," he could also recite by heart long passages of the popular Romance of the Western Chamber.[149]

Shunzhi was an open-minded emperor and relied on the advice of mafa in Manchu).[147] At the height of his influence in 1656 and 1657, Schall reports that Shunzhi often visited his house and talked to him late into the night.[145] He was excused from prostrating himself in the presence of the emperor, was granted land to build a church in Beijing, and was even given imperial permission to adopt a son (because Fulin worried that Schall did not have an heir), but the Jesuits' hope of converting the Qing sovereign to Christianity was crushed when Shunzhi became a devout follower of Chan Buddhism in 1657.[148]

After Fulin came to rule on his own in 1651, his mother the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang arranged for him to marry her niece, but the young monarch deposed his new Empress in 1653.[141] The following year Xiaozhuang arranged another imperial marriage with her Khorchin Mongol clan, this time matching her son with her own grand-niece.[141] Though Fulin also disliked his second empress (known posthumously as Empress Xiaohuizhang), he was not allowed to demote her. She never bore him children.[142] Starting in 1656, Shunzhi lavished his affection on Consort Donggo, who, according to Jesuit accounts from the time, had first been the wife of another Manchu noble.[143] She gave birth to a son (Shunzhi's fourth) in November 1657. The emperor would have made him his heir apparent, but he died early in 1658 before he was given a name.[144]

Color print of a man with a long white beard wearing a double-edged round cap and dressed in a long robe, who is pointing a compass to a celestial globe that is sitting on a table on the left.
Johann Adam Schall von Bell, a Jesuit missionary the Shunzhi Emperor affectionately called mafa ("grand'pa" in Manchu).

Personality and relationships

Zheng Chenggong ("Koxinga"), who had been adopted by the Longwu Emperor in 1646 and ennobled by Yongli in 1655, also continued to defend the cause of the Southern Ming.[136] In 1659, just as Shunzhi was preparing to hold a special examination to celebrate the glories of his reign and the success of the southwestern campaigns, Zheng sailed up the Yangtze River with a well-armed fleet, took several cities from Qing hands, and went so far as to threaten Nanjing.[137] When the emperor heard of this sudden attack he is said to have slashed his throne with a sword in anger.[137] But the siege of Nanjing was relieved and Zheng Chenggong repelled, forcing Zheng to take refuge in the southeastern coastal province of Fujian.[138] Pressured by Qing fleets, Zheng fled to Taiwan in April 1661 but died that same summer.[139] His descendants resisted Qing rule until 1683, when the Kangxi Emperor successfully took the island.[140]

Though the Qing under Dorgon's leadership had successfully pushed the Southern Ming deep into southern China, Ming loyalism was not dead yet. In early August 1652, Qing conquest of China.[135]

A map of southern China showing provincial boundaries in black, with a blue line running between several cities marked with a red dot.
The flight of the Yongli Emperor—the last sovereign of the Southern Ming dynasty—from 1647 to 1661. The provincial and national boundaries are those of the People's Republic of China.

Continuous campaigns against the Southern Ming

Meanwhile north of the Manchu homeland, adventurers Vassili Poyarkov (1643–1646) and Yerofei Khabarov (1649–1653) had started to explore the Amur River valley for Tzarist Russia. In 1653 Khabarov was recalled to Moscow and replaced by Onufriy Stepanov, who assumed command of Khabarov's Cossack troops.[129] Stepanov went south into the Sungari River, along which he exacted "yasak" (fur tribute) from native populations such as the Daur and the Duchers, but these groups resisted because they were already paying tribute to the Shunzhi Emperor ("Shamshakan" in Russian sources).[130] In 1654 Stepanov defeated a small Manchu force that had been despatched from Ningguta to investigate Russian advances.[129] In 1655 another Qing commander, the Mongol Minggadari (d. 1669), defeated Stepanov's forces at fort Kumarsk on the Amur, but this was not enough to chase the Russians.[131] In 1658, however, Manchu general Šarhūda (1599–1659) attacked Stepanov with a fleet of 40 or more ships that managed to kill or capture most Russians.[129] This Qing victory temporarily cleared the Amur valley of Cossack bands, but Sino-Russian border conflicts would continue until 1689, when the signature of the Treaty of Nerchinsk fixed the borders between Russia and the Qing.[129]

In 1651 the young emperor invited to Beijing the Fifth Dalai Lama, the leader of the Yellow Hat Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, who, with the military help of Khoshot Mongol Gushri Khan, had recently unified religious and secular rule in Tibet.[123] Qing emperors had been patrons of Tibetan Buddhism since at least 1621 under the reign of Nurhaci, but there were also political reasons behind the invitation.[124] Namely, Tibet was becoming a powerful polity west of the Qing, and the Dalai Lama held influence over Mongol tribes, many of which had not submitted to the Qing.[125] To prepare for the arrival of this "living Buddha," Shunzhi ordered the building of the White Dagoba (baita 白塔) on an island on one of the imperial lakes northwest of the Forbidden City, at the former site of Qubilai Khan's palace.[126] After more invitations and diplomatic exchanges to decide where the Tibetan leader would mean the Qing emperor, the Dalai Lama arrived in Beijing in January 1653.[127] The Dalai Lama later had a scene of this visit carved in the Potala Palace in Lhasa, which he had started building in 1645.[128]

Color photograph of a white, bell-shaped building composed (from bottom to top) of a square base, three round disks of increasingly smaller diameter, a cut reverse cone, and a thinner tapering column with horizontal flutings crowned by the golden statue of a sitting figure. It appears to emerge from a forested area, against the background of a slightly cloudy blue sky.
The bell-shaped White Dagoba, which can still be seen in Beihai Park in Beijing, was commissioned by the Shunzhi Emperor to honor Tibetan Buddhism.

Also in 1646 sultan Abu al-Muhammad Haiji Khan, a Mughal prince who ruled Turfan, had sent an embassy requesting the resumption of trade with China, which had been interrupted by the fall of the Ming dynasty.[119] The mission was sent without solicitation, but the Qing accepted to receive it, allowing it to conduct tribute trade in Beijing and Lanzhou (Gansu).[120] But this agreement was interrupted by a Muslim rebellion that engulfed the northwest in 1646 (see the last paragraph of the "Conquest of China" section above). Tribute and trade with Hami and Turfan, which had aided the rebels, were eventually resumed in 1656.[121] In 1655, however, the Qing court announced that tributary missions from Turfan would be accepted only once every five years.[122]

In 1646, when Qing armies led by Bolo had entered the city of Fuzhou, they had found envoys from the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Annam, and the Spanish in Manila.[118] These tributary embassies that had come to see the now fallen Longwu Emperor of the Southern Ming were forwarded to Beijing, and eventually sent home with instructions about submitting to the Qing.[118] The King of the Ryūkyū Islands sent his first tribute mission to the Qing in 1649, Siam in 1652, and Annam in 1661, after the last remnants of Ming resistance had been removed from Yunnan, which bordered Annam.[118]

A black-and-white print depicting three standing men wearing turbans, a long robe with a sash, and shoes with rising pointed tips, against an architectural background of buildings with roofs that point upwards. The man on the left, slightly in the background, is carrying a long folded umbrella on his left shoulder. The one in the center, who faces the viewer, is resting on a cane. The man on the right, seen in profile view, faces the center man.
"Moghul embassy" (emissaries from a Mughal prince who ruled Turfan in Central Asia) as portrayed in 1656 by Dutch visitors to Shunzhi's Beijing.[117]

Frontiers, tributaries, and foreign relations

[116] in March 1661 soon after Shunzhi's death.regents of the Kangxi Emperor The Thirteen Offices would be eliminated (and Wu Liangfu executed) by Oboi and the other [115] The fact that Wu only received a reprimand for his accepting bribes did not reassure the Manchu elite, which saw eunuch power as a degradation of Manchu power.[114] To counteract the power of the

During his short reign, the Shunzhi emperor encouraged Han Chinese to participate in government activities and revived many Chinese-style institutions that had been either abolished or marginalized during Dorgon's regency. He discussed history, classics, and politics with grand academicians such as Chen Mingxia (see previous section) and surrounded himself with new men such as Wang Xi (王熙; 1628–1703), a young northern Chinese who was fluent in Manchu.[107] The "Six Edicts" (Liu yu 六諭) that Shunzhi promulgated in 1652 were the predecessors to Kangxi's "Sacred Edicts" (1670): "bare bones of Confucian orthodoxy" that instructed the population to behave in a filial and law-abiding fashion.[108] In another move toward Chinese-style government, the sovereign reestablished the Hanlin Academy and the Grand Secretariat in 1658. These two institutions based on Ming models further eroded the power of the Manchu elite and threatened to revive the extremes of literati politics that had plagued the late Ming, when factions coalesced around rival grand secretaries.[109]

Chinese style of rule

In November 1657, a major cheating scandal erupted during the Shuntian provincial-level examinations in Beijing.[103] Eight candidates from Jiangnan who were also relatives of Beijing officials had bribed examiners in the hope of being ranked higher in the contest.[104] Seven examination supervisors found guilty of receiving bribes were executed, and several hundred people were sentenced to punishments ranging from demotion to exile and confiscation of property.[105] The scandal, which soon spread to Nanjing examination circles, uncovered the corruption and influence-peddling that was rife in the bureaucracy, and that many moralistic officials from the north attributed to the existence of southern literary clubs and to the decline of classical scholarship.[106]

[102] Chen was executed by strangulation on 27 April 1654.[101], factionalism, and usurping imperial prerogatives.nepotism (寧完我; d. 1665) about restoring the style of dress of the Ming court, Ning immediately denounced Chen to the emperor and accused him of various crimes including bribe-taking, Ning Wanwo In April 1654, when Chen Mingxia spoke to northern official [100] In several controversies at court in 1653 and 1654, the southerners formed one bloc opposed to the northerners and the Manchus.[99] Still in 1653, Shunzhi decided to recall the disgraced Feng Quan, but instead of balancing the influence of northern and southern Chinese officials at court as the emperor had intended, Feng Quan's return only intensified factional strife.[98] used to.Grand Secretaries He was even allowed to draft imperial edicts just as Ming [97] Though later in 1651 Chen was also dismissed on charges of influence peddling, he was reinstated in his post in 1653 and soon became a close personal advisor to the sovereign.[96] (陳名夏; ca. 1601–1654), an influential southern Chinese with good connections in Jiangnan literary societies.Chen Mingxia Shunzhi replaced Feng with [95] One of his first gestures was to dismiss grand academician [94] This edict triggered factional conflicts among literati that would frustrate him until his death.[93] On 7 April 1651, barely two months after he seized the reins of government, Shunzhi issued an edict announcing that he would purge corruption from officialdom.

Painting of a bearded man dressed in dark robes (on the left), with two much smaller young men, one wearing his hair in a top-knot and carrying something rolled in red piece of cloth. The background is a winter scene.
Court dress was a controversial topic during the Shunzhi era. High official Chen Mingxia was denounced in 1654 because he advocated returning to Ming-dynasty court dress, an example of which is shown in this 15th-century portrait of Jiang Shunfu.

Factional politics and the fight against corruption

On 1 February, Jirgalang announced that Shunzhi, who was about to turn thirteen, would now assume full imperial authority.[90] The regency was thus officially abolished. Jirgalang then moved to the attack. In late February or early March 1651 he accused Dorgon of usurping imperial prerogatives: Dorgon was found guilty and all his posthumous honors were removed.[90] Jirgalang continued to purge former members of Dorgon's clique and to bestow high ranks and nobility titles upon a growing number of followers in the Three Imperial Banners, so that by 1652 all of Dorgon's former supporters had been either killed or effectively removed from government.[92]

Meanwhile shang san qi 上三旗; Manchu: dergi ilan gūsa), which from then on were owned and controlled by the emperor.[91] Oboi and Suksaha, who would become regents for the Kangxi Emperor in 1661, were among the Banner officers who gave Jirgalang their support, and Jirgalang appointed them to the Council of Deliberative Princes to reward them.[90]

Dorgon's unexpected death on 31 December 1650 during a Ajige for fear he would proclaim himself as the new regent; Ubai and his officers then named themselves presidents of several Ministries and prepared to take charge of the government.[89]

A painted image of the head and chest of a black-haired man with droopy eyes wearing a white-edged two-tiered red cap and a bright yellow garment whose lapels are decorated with five-clawed yellow dragons against a blue background with clouds and vegetation.
Portrait of the Shunzhi Emperor in adulthood

Purging Dorgon's clique

Transition and personal rule (1651–1661)

Meanwhile in October 1646, Qing armies led by Hooge (the son of Hong Taiji who had lost the succession struggle of 1643) reached Sichuan, where their mission was to destroy the kingdom of bandit leader Zhang Xianzhong.[83] Zhang was killed in a battle against Qing forces near Xichong in central Sichuan on 1 February 1647.[84] Also late in 1646 but further north, forces assembled by a Muslim leader known in Chinese sources as Milayin (米喇印) revolted against Qing rule in Ganzhou (Gansu). He was soon joined by another Muslim named Ding Guodong (丁國棟).[85] Proclaiming that they wanted to restore the Ming, they occupied a number of towns in Gansu, including the provincial capital Lanzhou.[85] These rebels' willingness to collaborate with non-Muslim Chinese suggests that they were not only driven by religion.[85] Both Milayin and Ding Guodong were captured and killed by Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳; 1595–1654) in 1648, and by 1650 the Muslim rebels had been crushed in campaigns that inflicted heavy casualties.[86]

In late 1646 two more Southern Ming monarchs emerged in the southern province of Guangzhou, reigning under the era names of Shaowu (紹武) and Yongli.[78] Short of official costumes, the Shaowu court had to purchase robes from local theater troops.[78] The two Ming regimes fought each other until 20 January 1647, when a small Qing force led by Li Chengdong captured Guangzhou, killed the Shaowu Emperor, and sent the Yongli court fleeing to Nanning in Guangxi.[79] In May 1648, however, Li mutinied against the Qing, and the concurrent rebellion of another former Ming general in Jiangxi helped Yongli to retake most of south China.[80] This resurgence of loyalist hopes was short-lived. New Qing armies managed to reconquer the central provinces of Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan), Jiangxi, and Guangdong in 1649 and 1650.[81] The Yongli emperor had to flee again.[81] Finally on 24 November 1650, Qing forces led by Shang Kexi captured Guangzhou and massacred the city's population, killing as many as 70,000 people.[82]

Black-and-white print of a man with small eyes and a thin mustache wearing a robe, a fur hat, and a necklace made with round beads, sitting cross-legged on a three-level platform covered with a rug. Behind him and much smaller are eight men (four on each side) sitting in the same position wearing robes and round caps, as well as four standing men with similar garb (on the left).
Johan Nieuhof's portrait of Shang Kexi, who recaptured Guangzhou from Ming loyalist forces in 1650. He was one of the Han Chinese generals the Qing relied on to conquer and administer southern China. Entrenched in the south, he eventually took part in the anti-Qing rebellion of the Three Feudatories in 1673.

After the fall of Nanjing, two more members of the Ming imperial household created new Southern Ming regimes: one centered in coastal Fujian around the "Longwu Emperor" Zhu Yujian, Prince of Tang—a ninth-generation descendant of Ming founder Zhu Yuanzhang—and one in Zhejiang around "Regent" Zhu Yihai, Prince of Lu.[74] But the two loyalist groups failed to cooperate, making their chances of success even lower than they already were.[75] In July 1646, a new Southern Campaign led by Prince Bolo sent Prince Lu's Zhejiang court into disarray and proceeded to attack the Longwu regime in Fujian.[76] Zhu Yujian was caught and summarily executed in Tingzhou (western Fujian) on 6 October.[77] His adoptive son Koxinga fled to the island of Taiwan with his fleet.[77] Finally in November, the remaining centers of Ming resistance in Jiangxi province fell to the Qing.[78]

On 21 July 1645, after Jiangnan had been superficially pacified, Dorgon issued a most inopportune edict ordering all Chinese men to shave their forehead and to braid the rest of their hair into a queue identical to those of the Manchus.[66] The punishment for non-compliance was death.[67] This policy of symbolic submission helped the Manchus in telling friend from foe.[68] For Han officials and literati, however, the new hairstyle was shameful and demeaning (because it breached a common Confucian directive to preserve one's body intact), whereas for common folk cutting their hair was the same as losing their virility.[69] Because it united Chinese of all social backgrounds into resistance against Qing rule, the hair cutting command greatly hindered the Qing conquest.[70] The defiant population of Jiading and Songjiang was massacred by former Ming general Li Chengdong (李成東; d. 1649), respectively on August 24 and September 22.[71] Jiangyin also held out against about 10,000 Qing troops for 83 days. When the city wall was finally breached on 9 October 1645, the Qing army led by Ming defector Liu Liangzuo (劉良佐; d. 1667) massacred the entire population, killing between 74,000 and 100,000 people.[72] These massacres ended armed resistance against the Qing in the Lower Yangtze.[73] A few committed loyalists became hermits, hoping that for lack of military success, their withdrawal from the world would at least symbolize their continued defiance against foreign rule.[73]

A black-and-white photograph from three-quarter back view of a man wearing a round cap and a long braided queue that reaches to the back of his right knee. His left foot is posed on the first step of a four-step wooden staircase. Bending forward to touch a cylindrical container from which smoke is rising, he is resting his left elbow on his folded left knee.
A man in Manchus.

From newly captured Xi'an, in early April 1645 the Qing mounted a campaign against the rich commercial and agricultural region of Prince Dodo then ordered the slaughter of Yangzhou's entire population.[62] As intended, this massacre terrorized other Jiangnan cities into surrendering to the Qing.[63] Indeed Nanjing surrendered without a fight on 16 June after its last defenders had made Dodo promise he would not hurt the population.[64] The Qing soon captured the Ming emperor (who died in Beijing the following year) and seized Jiangnan's main cities, including Suzhou and Hangzhou; by early July 1645, the frontier between the Qing and the Southern Ming had been pushed south to the Qiantang River.[65]


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