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Signal transducing adaptor protein

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Title: Signal transducing adaptor protein  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hippo signaling pathway, Cell signaling, GRB2, Adapter (disambiguation), BIN1
Collection: Cell Signaling, Proteins
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Signal transducing adaptor protein

Src-associated adaptor protein Skap2 with 1u5e code

Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway. Adaptor proteins contain a variety of protein-binding modules that link protein-binding partners together and facilitate the creation of larger signaling complexes. These proteins tend to lack any intrinsic enzymatic activity themselves[1] but instead mediate specific protein–protein interactions that drive the formation of protein complexes. Examples of adaptor proteins include MyD88, Grb2 and SHC1.


  • Signaling components 1
  • Domains 2
  • Genes 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6

Signaling components

Much of the specificity of signal transduction depends on the recruitment of several signalling components such as protein kinases and G-protein GTPases into short lived active complexes in response to an activating signal such as a growth factor binding to its receptor.


Adaptor proteins usually contain several domains within their structure (e.g., Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains) that allow specific interactions with several other specific proteins. SH2 domains recognise specific amino acid sequences within proteins containing phosphotyrosine residues and SH3 domains recognise proline-rich sequences within specific peptide sequence contexts of proteins.

There are many other types of interaction domains found within adaptor and other signalling proteins that allow a rich diversity of specific and coordinated protein–protein interactions to occur within the cell during signal transduction.


Genes encoding adaptor proteins include:

  • BCAR3 – Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance protein 3
  • GRAP – GRB2-related adaptor protein
  • GRAP2 – GRB2-related adaptor protein 2
  • LDLRAP1 – low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1
  • NCK1 – NCK adaptor protein 1
  • NCK2 – NCK adaptor protein 2
  • NOS1AP – nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein
  • PIK3AP1 – phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1
  • SH2B1 – SH2B adaptor protein 1
  • SH2B2 – SH2B adaptor protein 2
  • SH2B3 – SH2B adaptor protein 3
  • SH2D3A -SH2 domain containing 3A
  • SH2D3C – SH2 domain containing 3C
  • SHB – Src homology 2 domain containing adaptor protein B
  • SLC4A1AP – solute carrier family 4 (anion exchanger), member 1, adaptor protein
  • GAB2 – GRB2-associated binding protein 2

See also


  1. ^ Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

Further reading

  • TAB2 is an adaptor protein involved in the  
  • Good article about adaptor proteins involved in  
  • A good article regarding the role of adaptor proteins involved with the  
  • Signalling discussed with regards to adaptor proteins: Pawson, T. (1997). "Signaling Through Scaffold, Anchoring, and Adaptor Proteins". Science 278 (5346): 2075–2080.  

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