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Sisak

Grad Sisak
City of Sisak
City
Top left: Sisak Fortress and Kupa River, top right: Sisak Gymnasium, middle left: A monument of Antun Gustav Matoš on bank of Kupa, middle right: Large Chapter House and Sisak Cathedral, bottom left: Holland Storehouse, bottom right: Sisak Refinery
Top left: Sisak Fortress and Kupa River, top right: Sisak Gymnasium, middle left: A monument of Antun Gustav Matoš on bank of Kupa, middle right: Large Chapter House and Sisak Cathedral, bottom left: Holland Storehouse, bottom right: Sisak Refinery
Flag of Grad Sisak
Flag
Map of Sisak within Sisak-Moslavina County
Map of Sisak within Sisak-Moslavina County
Grad Sisak is located in Croatia
Grad Sisak
Location of Sisak within Croatia
Coordinates:
Country Croatia
County Sisak-Moslavina County
Government
 • Mayor Kristina Ikić Baniček[1] (SDP)
Area
 • City 422.75 km2 (163.22 sq mi)
 • Metro 989.50 km2 (382.05 sq mi)
Elevation 98 m (321.52 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 47,768
 • Density 110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 44000
Area code(s) 044
Patron saints Quirinus of Sescia
Website .hr.sisakwww
Vetriano coin struck at Siscia mint in 350.

Sisak (Croatian pronunciation: ; in Hungarian: Sziszek) is a city in central Croatia located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava, and Odra rivers, 57 km (35 mi) southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).[3]

Sisak is the administrative centre of the Sisak-Moslavina County, Croatia's biggest river port and a centre of river shipping industry (Dunavski Lloyd). It lies on the main road Zagreb-Hrvatski Sisak-Petrinja (M12.2) and the railroad Zagreb-Sisak-Sunja. Sisak is a regional economic, cultural and historical center. The largest oil refinery in Croatia is located here.[4]

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Geography 2
  • History 3
    • Roman period 3.1
    • Middle Ages 3.2
    • Early modern 3.3
    • Modern 3.4
    • Contemporary 3.5
  • Demographics 4
  • Education 5
  • Miscellaneous 6
  • International relations 7
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
    • Bibliography 9.1
    • Notes 9.2
  • External links 10

Name

Prior to the invasion by the Roman Empire, the region was Celtic and Illyrian and the city there was named Segestica.[5]

In German the town is known as Sissek, in Hungarian as Sziszek, Latin as Siscia, in Serbian Cyrillic as Сисак, and in Slovene as Sisek

Geography

Sisak is situated at the confluence of three rivers, the Sava, the Kupa and the Odra, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m.

History

Sisak Fortress

Roman period

During the Roman Empire when Sisak was known as Siscia, a Roman mint in the city produced coins under a series of emperors between 262 and 383 CE.[6] It was in this period that the Christian martyr Quirinus of Sescia was tortured and nearly killed during Diocletian's persecution of Christians. Legend has it that they tied him to a millstone and threw him into a river, but he freed himself from the weight, escaped and continued to preach his faith. Today he is the patron saint of Sisak.

Middle Ages

Braslav reigned from Sisak until this last bastion of the Pannonian Croats was invaded.[7] According to Historia Salonitana, Duke Tomislav reclaimed it soon after.[8][9]

Early modern

The 16th century triangular fortress of the Old Town, well-preserved and turned into the Native Museum, is the main destination of every tourist. The fortress is famous for the victory of the joint forces of Croats, Austrians and Carniolans (Slovenes) over the Ottomans in 1593, known as the Battle of Sisak. It was one of the early significant defeats of the up-to-then invincible Ottoman army on European territory. The Croatian Ban Thomas Erdődy who led the defense in this battle became famous throughout Europe. The Baroque palace of Mali Kaptol, the classicist Veliki Kaptol, the brick Stari most ("Old Bridge") over the Kupa, and the ethnological park are the most frequently visited landmarks.

Modern

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Sisak was a district capital in the Zagreb County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.

Contemporary

From 1929 to 1939, Sisak was part of the Sava Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

During World War II, Sisak children's concentration camp was set up by the Croatian Axis Ustaše government for Serbian, Jewish and Romani children. It is estimated that 1,152–2,000 children were killed in the camp.[10]

Sisak Old Bridge (Sisak Stari Most) in Zitna Street

With the outbreak of the Croatian War in 1991, Sisak remained in Croatian hands while the territory to the south was controlled by Serbs. In 1991 and 1992, the Croatian Army killed 611 civilians in Sisak, out of whom 595 were Serbs, 14 Croats and 2 Bosniaks, according to Domagoj Margetić.[11][12] During the war, the Serb forces often shelled the city, causing dozens of civilian casualties and extensive damage to the city's industry.[13] The war ended with the Operation Storm (1995), which led to 150,000–200,000 Serb refugees leaving the country; the number of Serbs decreased from 12,017 (1991) to 3,897 (2001).

Demographics

The city administrative area is composed of the following settlements:[2]

In the 2011 census, of the total population of 47,768 there were 40,590 Croats (84.97%), 3,071 Serbs (6.43%), 1,646 Bosniaks (3.45%), 648 Romani (1.36%), 179 Albanians (0.37%), 29 Montenegrins (0.06%), and the rest were other ethnicities.

In the 2011 census, the population by religion was 37,319 Roman Catholics (78.13%), 3,279 Orthodox Christians (6.86%), 2,442 Muslims (5.11%), and others.

Education

The city hosts University of Zagreb's Faculty of Metallurgy.

Miscellaneous

Sisak oil refinery

Chief occupations are farming, ferrous metallurgy (iron works), chemicals, leather (footwear), textiles and food processing plants (dairy products, alcoholic beverages), building material, crude oil refinery, and thermal power.

Sisak features the largest Croatian metallurgic factory and the largest oil refinery in Croatia

Sisak has many rich mineral springs (spas) with healing properties in the temperature range from 42 to 54 °C (108 to 129 °F).

Sports and recreation facilities in the town and the surroundings include mainly the waters and alluvial plains a public beach on the Kupa. All rivers (Kupa, Odra, Sava) with their backwaters offer fishing opportunities. There are hunting grounds in the regions of Turopolje and Posavina. Sisak is the starting point for sightseeing tours into Lonjsko Polje (Field of Lonja river) nature park.

The local football club is HNK Segesta.

Sisak features the oldest ice hockey club in Croatia, KHL Sisak est. 1934

Sisak is a popular destination in the summer and many people from the surrounding cities visit the cafés situated along the river Kupa. As of recently, numerous clubs have opened and their popularity has been bolstered through nights sponsored by various beer manufacturers.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Sisak is twinned with:

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing,  

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.izbori.hr/2013Lokalni/rezult/krug-2/rezultati.html
  2. ^ a b "Enumerated persons, households and housing units, 2011 census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb:  
  3. ^ http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv/censuses/census2011/results/htm/H01_01_01/h01_01_01_zup03_3913.html
  4. ^ http://www.mol.hu/en/business_centre/refining_marketing/refining/
  5. ^ John T. Koch (2006). Celtic Culture. p. 1662.  
  6. ^ http://finds.org.uk/romancoins/mints/mint/id/197 accessed 2013-03-28
  7. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine, John V. A. Fine, Jr. (2006). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans.  
  8. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine, John V. A. Fine, Jr. (2006). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans. University of Michigan Press. p. 178.  
  9. ^ Stanko Guldescu (1964). History of Medieval Croatia. Mouton. p. 113. 
  10. ^ http://www.glassrpske.com/novosti/region/Sisak-Srbi-traze-da-logor-za-djecu-udje-u-udzbenike/lat/135620.html. 
  11. ^ http://www.vesti-online.com/Vesti/Ex-YU/49282/Sisak-92-Hrvatski-specijalci-sekli-grkljane-Srbima. 
  12. ^ "Sisački dosije mraka". Vreme. 
  13. ^ "11 kaznenih prijava za razaranje Siska".  
  14. ^ "Twin Towns". gabrovo.bg. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 

External links

  • Official website
  • Sisak News Portal
  • Radio Sisak - Hometown radio station
  • Sisak Tourism
  • Photo Gallery of Sisak
  •  

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