World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0010007919
Reproduction Date:

Title: Smocking  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: English embroidery, Smock-frock, Pleat, Heirloom sewing, Chung Young Yang Embroidery Museum
Collection: Embroidery
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Smocking on the collar of a sixteenth-century garment.

Smocking is an embroidery technique used to gather fabric so that it can stretch. Before elastic, smocking was commonly used in cuffs, bodices, and necklines in garments where buttons were undesirable. Smocking developed in England and has been practised since the Middle Ages and is unusual among embroidery methods in that it was often worn by laborers. Other major embroidery styles are purely decorative and represented status symbols. Smocking was practical for garments to be both form fitting and flexible, hence its name derives from smock — a farmer's work shirt.[1] Smocking was used most extensively in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[2]


  • Materials 1
  • Method 2
  • Organization 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
    • Bibliography 5.1
  • External links 6


Smocking requires lightweight fabric with a stable weave that gathers well. Cotton and silk are typical fiber choices, often in lawn or voile. Smocking is worked on a crewel embroidery needle in cotton or silk thread and normally requires three times the width of initial material as the finished item will have.[3] Historically, smocking was also worked in piqué, crepe de Chine, and cashmere.[4] According to Good Housekeeping: The Illustrated Book of Needlecrafts, "Any type of fabric can be smocked if it is supple enough to be gathered."[2]

Fabric can be gathered into pleats in a variety of ways.

Early smocking, or gauging, was done by hand. Some embroiderers also made their own guides using cardboard and an embroidery marking pencil.[2] By 1880, iron-on transfer dots were available and advertised in magazines such as Weldon's. The iron on transfers places evenly spaced dots onto the wrong side of the fabric, which were then pleated using a regular running stitch.

Since the early 1950s, pleating machines have been available to home smockers. Using gears and specialty pleater needles, the fabric is forced through the gears and onto the threaded needles. Pleating machines are typically offered in 16-row, 24-row and 32-row widths. Manufacturers include Read and Amanda Jane.


A smocking sampler demonstrating various stitches. See accompanying text in the article for details.

Smocking refers to work done before a garment is assembled. It usually involves reducing the dimensions of a piece of fabric to one-third of its original width, although changes are sometimes lesser with thick fabrics. Individual smocking stitches also vary considerably in tightness, so embroiderers usually work a sampler for practice and reference when they begin to learn smocking.[2]

Traditional hand smocking begins with marking smocking dots in a grid pattern on the wrong side of the fabric and gathering it with temporary running stitches. These stitches are anchored on each end in a manner that facilitates later removal and are analogous to basting stitches. Then a row of cable stitching stabilizes the top and bottom of the working area.[5]

Smocking may be done in many sophisticated patterns.[6] Standard hand smocking stitches are:

A. Cable stitch: a tight stitch of double rows that joins alternating columns of gathers.[7]

B. Stem stitch: a tight stitch with minimum flexibility that joins two columns of gathers at a time in single overlapping rows with a downward slope.[8]

C. Outline stitch: similar to the stem stitch but with an upward slope.[8]

D. Cable flowerette: a set of gathers worked in three rows of stitches across four columns of gathers. Often organized in diagonally arranged sets of flowerettes for loose smocking.[9]

E. Wave stitch: a medium density pattern that alternately employs tight horizontal stitches and loose diagonal stitches.[10]

F. Honeycomb stitch: a medium density variant on the cable stitch that double stitches each set of gathers and provides more spacing between them, with an intervening diagonal stitch concealed on the reverse side of the fabric.[11]

G. Surface honeycomb stitch: a tight variant on the honeycomb stitch and the wave stitch with the diagonal stitch visible, but spanning only one gather instead of a gather and a space.[12]

H. Trellis stitch: a medium density pattern that uses stem stitches and outine stitches to form diamond-shaped patterns.[12]

I. Vandyke stitch: a tight variant on the surface honeycomb stitch that wraps diagonal stitches in the opposite direction.[13]

J. Bullion stitch: a complex knotted stitch that joins several gathers in a single stitch. Organized similarly to cable flowerettes.[13]

  • Smocker's knot: (not depicted) a simple knotted stitch used to finish work with a thread or for decorative purposes.[9]


The Smocking Arts Guild of America (SAGA) is the premiere needlework organization for smocking and fine handsewing, as well as French machine sewing and related needlearts, including silk ribbon embroidery, shadowwork embroidery, and pulled thread work.

See also


  1. ^ Reader's Digest, p. 160.
  2. ^ a b c d Good Housekeeping, p. 146.
  3. ^ Reader's Digest, pp. 160–161.
  4. ^ Gilman, Elizabeth Hale, Things Girls Like to Do (1917).[1] Accessed 5 January 2008.
  5. ^ Reader's Digest, pp. 161–162.
  6. ^ Smocking Guild of America glossary (accessed 5 January 2008).
  7. ^ Reader's Digest, p. 163.
  8. ^ a b Reader's Digest, p. 164.
  9. ^ a b Reader's Digest, p. 165.
  10. ^ Reader's Digest, p. 166.
  11. ^ Reader's Digest, p. 167.
  12. ^ a b Reader's Digest, p. 168.
  13. ^ a b Reader's Digest, p. 169.


  • The Reader's Digest Association, Complete Guide to Embroidery Stitches, Pleasantville, New York: Marabout, 2004. ISBN 0-7621-0658-1
  • Ed. Cecilia K. Toth, Good Housekeeping: The Illustrated Book of Needlecrafts, New York: Hearst Books, 1994. ISBN 1-58816-035-1

External links

  • SAGA: The Smocking Arts Guild of America
  • The Highveld Smockers Guild history of smocking
  • The Museum of English Rural Life examples of historic work smocks
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.