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Sud Aviation Caravelle


Sud Aviation Caravelle

Sud SE-210 Caravelle 10B3 Super B of Finnair at Basel Airport in April 1976
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin France
Manufacturer Sud Aviation
First flight 27 May 1955
Introduction 1959 with Scandinavian Airlines
Retired 2004
Status Retired
Primary user Air France
Produced 1958-1972[1]
Number built 282

The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the world's first short/medium-range jet airliner, produced by the French Sud Aviation firm. Its maiden flight occurred in 1955 when the company was known as SNCASE. The Caravelle was one of the most successful European first-generation jetliners, selling throughout Europe and even penetrating the United States market, with an order for 20 from United Airlines.[2] The Caravelle established the aft-mounted engine, clean-wing design that has since been used on a wide variety of aircraft.[2]


  • Design and development 1
  • Variants 2
  • Operators 3
    • Civil operators 3.1
    • Military and government operators 3.2
  • Incidents and accidents 4
  • Aircraft on display 5
  • Specifications (Caravelle III) 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Design and development

On 12 October 1951, the Comité du matériel civil (civil aircraft committee) published a specification for a medium-range aircraft, which was later sent to the aviation industry by the Direction technique et industrielle. This called for an aircraft carrying 55 to 65 passengers and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of cargo on routes up to 2,000 km (1,100 

  • Video in YouTube about TALCE's operations in Africa, showing (among other aircraft) Caravelle 3D-KIK (accessed 2009-05-12)
  • - the Caravelle website (accessed 2012-09-11)
  • "Flying the Caravelle" a 1957 Flight article
  • Youtube video of a United Air Lines SE210 Caravelle

External links

  • Avrane, Alexandre; Gilliand, Michel; Guillem, J. (1981). Sud Est Caravelle. London: Jane's.  
  • "Progress with the Caravelle" (pdf), Flight, 24 September 1954: 472-473 
  • "Caravelle" (pdf), Flight, 6 July 1956: 31–33 
  • Dougal, M. G. (12 September 1963), "The Caravelle: Past Present and Future" (pdf), Flight International: 456–458 
  1. ^ "The Sud SE-210 Caravelle". Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l López Ortega, Antonio (1999). Reactores comerciales: Dibujos del autor (in Spanish). Madrid: Agualarga.  
  3. ^ Dougal p457
  4. ^ "Reittilentoliikenteen ensimmäinen Super Caravelle luovutettiin Suomeen" [The first Super Caravelle for scheduled flights was delivered to Finland].  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp Avrane (1981)
  6. ^ "World Airline Directory". Flight International 133 (4106). 1988-03-26. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  7. ^ Istanbul Airlines
  8. ^ "MEA Caravelle Lost", Flight International, 24 April 1964: 635 
  9. ^ "Accident Database". 
  10. ^ "Accident description PP-PDX". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  11. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "O mistério do Tirirical". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 279–284.  
  12. ^ " - Kultur i Norge på nett" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  13. ^ "Preserving a classic airliner". Le Caravelle Club. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  14. ^ .[4]
  15. ^ "Caravelle at Musée Delta". Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  16. ^ "Présentation> Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace - Site officiel". Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  17. ^ "Photo Royal Air Maroc (RAM) Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle CN-CCZ". 2006-02-01. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 


Related lists
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related development

See also


General characteristics

Data from Lopez[2]

Specifications (Caravelle III)

  • I-DABA Caravelle VI-N (msn. 71) Originally with Alitalia, before being sold to the Congo as 9Q-CRU. Repainted and on display at as the "Aero Beach Craft" park and bufffet near Entebbe, Uganda.
  • CN-CCZ Caravelle (msn. 195) Originally with Royal Air Maroc. Stored at the Royal Air Maroc training facilities at Mohammed V International Airport in Casablanca.[17]
  • HC-BDS Caravelle VI-N (msn. 146) Originally delivered to Alitalia as I-DABV. Last flew for Sociedad Anónima Ecuatoriana de Transportes Aéreos in Ecuador. Sold to a private individual in 1990 and moved to Otavalo and repainted in fictitious "Pastavi Airlines" markings. Last photographed in 2004, probably still existent.
South America
  • N901MW Caravelle 12 (msn. 62) Originally built for United Air Lines but purchased by Serviços Aéreos Cruzeiro do Sul PP-CJC, before being sold to Airborne Express. This aircraft is located at Port Columbus Airport (CMH) in Columbus, Ohio, USA. After the closure of the Ohio History of Flight Museum, to which it belonged, it was donated to Port Columbus Airport Authority and is currently used by fire teams for training. The airframe was reported in storage in 2006, but now sits outside of the Port Columbus Airport Fire Department with the radome removed.
  • N907MW Caravelle VI-R Stored as a "classroom plane" at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport.
  • N777VV Caravelle VI-R (msn. 87) Originally with United Airlines as N1002U, "Ville de Cahors." Sold to Transavia Holland as PH-TRY, before returning to the US with Turbo Air Holdings and later donated to Pima County College. In poor condition at Tucson International Airport as a fire trainer.
  • HK-2836 Caravelle 10R (msn. 211) Originally delivered to Finnair as "Kuopio." Also flew for Air Charter and EAS - Europe Aero Service as F-GDFZ before being sold to SEC Colombia as HK-3836 and LAS - Lineas Aereas Suramericanas as HK-3836X, going on to serve with the Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, serial 10506. This aircraft was impounded at MEX, again wearing serial HK-3836. She was eventually moved and re-assembled for visitor display inside Parque Aviacuatico Los Manantiales, Jilotepec-Ixtlahuaca Highway at km 39. Sistership Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, serial 10507 (msn. 232) may have survived a number of years at a Mexican water park north of Mexico City, but is believed to have finally been scrapped in 2002.
North America
  • F-BHRA Caravelle III (msn. 1) Originally delivered to Air France as "Alsace." Preserved at the Piet Smedts Autobedrijf in Baarlo, Netherlands.
  • F-BHHI Caravelle III (msn. 2) Second prototype - briefly appeared in Air France color scheme but never flew with the airline. Forward fuselage preserved at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace at Paris, Le Bourget.
  • LN-KLH Caravelle III (msn. 3) Originally delivered to SAS as "Finn Viking." Preserved at the Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology, Oslo, Norway.[12]
  • SE-DAA Caravelle III (msn. 4) Originally delivered to SAS as "Eskil Viking." Stored without nose at Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Sweden and used for fire training. The nose section is in poor condition at the Finnish Aviation Museum, Helsinki.
  • One Caravelle, SE-DAI, is located at the Stockholm Arlanda Airport. The aircraft engines are run regularly to keep all systems working until funds covering a "Grand Visit" (=C-check) can be found. The aircraft is maintained by "Le Caravelle Club".[13] Ex-Swedish Air Force Tp85 tail number 852. The cabin is restored to civil standard with SAS 1970 seats in a spacious 2+2 configuration.
  • LN-KLP Caravelle III (msn. 24) Originally delivered to SAS as "Trond Viking." Stored as a fire training airframe in poor condition at Malmö - Sturup airport, Sweden.
  • PH-TRO Caravelle III (msn. 33) Originally delivered to Transavia Holland. Nose section preserved at the Aviodome, Lelystad, Netherlands.
  • OY-KRD Caravelle III (msn. 47) Originally delivered to SAS as "Ulf Viking." Entire aircraft on display at the Helsingør Transport Museum, Helsingør, Denmark.[14]
  • F-BHRT Caravelle III (msn. 55) Originally delivered to Air France as "Picardie." Entire aircraft preserved, serving as an instructional airframce at the Institute Amaury de la Grange, a technical college and flying school at Merville-Calonne, France.
  • 57 Caravelle III (msn. 57) Originally delivered to Royal Air Maroc as CN-CCX. On display at Musée Européen de l'Aviation de Chasse, Montélimar, France.
  • F-BHRU Caravelle III (msn. 58) Originally delivered to Air France as "Poitou." Nose section acquired by private individual. Being converted to Simulator in Oberschleißheim, Munich, Germany.
  • F-BHRY Caravelle III (msn. 61) Originally delivered to Air France as "Touraine." On display at Albert, France.
  • OO-SRA Caravelle VI-N (msn. 64) Originally delivered to Sabena. Entire aircraft preserved at the Royal Museum of the Army and Military History, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EL-AIW Caravelle VI-N (msn. 106) Originally delivered to Alitalia as I-DABS, "Dubhe." Stored in poor condition at Makedonia Airport, Thessaloniki, Greece, after having been impounded for weapon smuggling.
  • SE-DAF Caravelle III (msn. 112) Originally delivered to SAS as "Sven Viking." Stored at Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Sweden.
  • F-ZACE Caravelle III (msn. 116) Originally delivered to Finnair as OH-LED and flown by the French Air Force as 116/CE. On display at Musée Européen de l'Aviation de Chasse, Montélimar, France.
  • F-BJTH Caravelle III (msn. 124) Originally delivered to Air France as "Franche-Comté"; later served with Air Charter International. Stored along the eastern perimeter of Nice airport (). Close by is the monument to the September 1968 accident when a Caravelle crashed with the loss of all on board.
  • YU-AHB Caravelle VI-N (msn. 135) Originally delivered to JAT Yugoslav Airlines as "Bled." On display at the Museum of Yugoslav Aviation, near the Nikola Tesla International Airport.
    Caravelle in front of Museum of Aviation (Belgrade)
  • F-RAFG Caravelle III (msn. 141) Originally delivered to the French Air Force as the presidential aircraft for Charles de Gaulle. Stored, awaiting restoration at Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace (Paris Museum of Air and Space in Le Bourget).
  • I-DABM Caravelle VI-N (msn. 143) Originally delivered to Alitalia. On display but in poor condition at Ceolini, Italy.
  • F-BJTO Caravelle III (msn. 148) Originally delivered to Air France as "Pays Basque"; later transferred to Air Charter International. Nose section preserved at the Air France Technical School in Vilgenis, near Paris, France.
  • SE-DAG Caravelle III (msn. 172) Originally delivered to SAS as "Dag Viking." Currently cared for by the Swedish Air Force Museum, Linköping. The aircraft also served with the Swedish Air Force. tail number 851. Its current location is on the "Malmen" air base outside of Linköping, Sweden. It is being stored outdoors and the long-term plan is to restore it for display in the configuration in which it was used by the Air Force (signal reconnaissance).
  • F-BJEN Caravelle 10R Super B (msn. 185) Originally delivered to Finnair as OH-LSC "Turku". Forward fuselage section preserved Corlier, France, as "Aeroclub du Haut-Bugey."
  • SE-DAI Caravelle III (msn. 210) Originally delivered to SAS as "Alrik Viking." Fully restored and preserved as Le Caravelle Club at Stockholm - Arlanda airport, Sweden.
  • F-BVPZ Caravelle VI N (msn. 218) Originally delivered to JAT Yugoslav Airlines as YU-AHF and flown by Corse Air. Displayed in the colors of Athis-Paray Aviation at the Musée Delta in Athis-Mons, near Paris-Orly Airport.[15]
  • F-BYCY Caravelle 12 (msn. 233) Originally delivered to JAT Yugoslav Airlines as YU-AHG and flown by Aerotur and Corse Air. Preserved at Moyenpal, France, as a karaoke bar "Espace Caravelle."
  • F-ZAZQ Caravelle VI-R (msn. 234) Originally delivered to Luxair as LX-LGE. This aircraft was used for microgravity with the Conservatoire de l'Air et de l'Espace d'Aquitaine; now retired, she has been preserved at Bordeaux-Merignac.
  • F-BOHA Caravelle III (msn. 242) Originally delivered to Air France as "Guyane." Stored and on display at Avignon, France.
  • F-GHMU Caravelle 12 (msn. 249) Originally delivered to Sterling Airways as OY-STE before being sold to Air Toulouse International; also flew for Air City as HB-IKD and the government of the Central African Republic as TL-ABB and European Air Service as F-GCJT. Preserved and on display at the Ailes Anciennes de Toulouse Museum at Toulouse-Blaganc, France.
  • TC-ABA Caravelle 10B (msn. 253) Originally delivered to SATA as HB-ICN. Sold to Istanbul Airlines, named "Mine." Restored and on display at the Istanbul Aviation Museum, Turkey.
  • F-GCVM Caravelle 12 (msn. 270) Originally delivered to Sterling Airways as OY-SAA and flown by Air Inter and Air Provence. Stored in poor condition at Marseilles-Provence Airport, Marignane, France.
  • F-GCVL Caravelle 12 (msn. 273) Originally delivered to Sterling Airways as OY-SAE and flown by Air Inter and Air Provence. Preserved and on display at Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace (Paris Museum of Air and Space in Le Bourget).[16]
  • F-GVCK Caravelle 12 (msn. 276) Originally delivered to Air Inter. Preserved at the [Institut Aéronautique Amaury de la Grange], [Merville - Calonne], France.
  • F-BTOE Caravelle 12 (msn. 280) Originally delivered to Air Inter, the last Caravelle built. Preserved and on display at the Ailes Anciennes de Toulouse Museum at Toulouse-Blaganc, France.
  • The cockpit of an unidentified Caravelle rests at a company in Velbert, Germany, that makes flight simulators.
Cockpit of Sud Caravelle airliner formerly PH-TRO of Transavia, on display at Aviodrome Lelystad in 2009

Aircraft on display

  • 19 January 1960 – Scandinavian Airlines System Flight 871, a Caravelle I, crashed at Esenboga Airport, Turkey due to excessive descent for reasons unknown. Seven crew members and 35 passengers lost their lives.
  • 12 September 1961 – Air France Flight 2005, a Caravelle III, crashed near Rabat after the crew misread instruments, killing all 77 on board.
  • 4 September 1963 – Swissair Flight 306 crashed shortly after take-off from Zürich following an in-flight fire, killing all 80 people on board.
  • 18 April 1964 – Middle East Airlines Flight 444 (OD-AEM) crashed at night into the Persian Gulf, 10 miles out from Dharhan Airport, Saudi Arabia, killing all 49 on board; the cause was never determined.[8]
  • 15 February 1966 – An Indian Airlines Caravelle VIN (VT-DPP) crashed short of the runway at Palam Airport in poor visibility, killing two of 80 on board.
  • 4 September 1966 – An Indian Airlines Caravelle VIN (VT-DSB) struck a hill at 800 feet during a training flight, killing the four crew.
  • 30 June 1967 – Thai Airways International Flight 601, a Caravelle III, crashed into the sea while landing at Hong Kong's Kai Tak Airport during a tropical heavy rainstorm. The co-pilot, who was flying the aircraft, allegedly made an abrupt heading change, causing the aircraft to enter into a high rate of descent and crashing into the sea, to the right of the runway. The starboard wing broke off and the aircraft lay on its starboard side, the port wing tip protruding from the water. 24 were killed probably because half the escape doors were made useless when the aircraft rolled onto its side.[9]
  • 4 November 1967 – Iberia Airlines Flight 062, a Caravelle 10R, struck Blackdown Hill, Sussex, United Kingdom, killing all 37 passengers and crew.
  • 11 September 1968 – Air France Flight 1611, a Caravelle III en route from the island of Corsica to Nice, France, crashed into the Mediterranean Sea off Nice following an in-flight fire, killing all 95 on board; in 2011 a report surfaced that a missile shot down the aircraft.
  • 28 December 1968 – Two Middle East Airlines Caravelle VIN's (OD-AEE and OD-AEF), along with 12 other aircraft, were destroyed at Beirut International Airport by Israeli commandos in retaliation for a terrorist attack on a Boeing aircraft in Athens.
  • 26 July 1969 – An Air Algérie Caravelle VIN (7T-VAK) crashed at near Hassi Messaoud Airport, Algeria killing 33 passengers and crew out of 37. The aircraft crashed onto the runway while attempting an emergency landing due to an in-flight fire.
  • 1 April 1970 – A Royal Air Maroc Caravelle III (CN-CCV) crashed on approach to Casablanca following a loss of control, killing 61 of 72 on board.
  • 20 November 1971 – A China Airlines Caravelle III (B-1852) crashed near Penghu, Taiwan due to a possible bomb explosion, killing all 25 passengers and crew on board.
  • 7 January 1972 – Iberia Airlines Flight 602 crashed into a mountain while on approach to Ibiza Airport, Spain. All 104 passengers and crew were killed.
  • 14 March 1972 – Sterling Airways Flight 296 crashed 20 mi west of Kalba, United Arab Emirates due to pilot error, killing all 112 passengers and crew in the worst ever accident involving the Caravelle. The accident is also the deadliest in the United Arab Emirates.
  • 1 June 1973 – Cruzeiro do Sul Flight 109, a Caravelle VIN (PP-PDX) from Belém-Val de Cans to São Luís crashed on approach to São Luís. Engine no.1 lost power and the aircraft attained an extreme nose-up attitude. It stalled and crashed 760 m to the right of the runway. All 23 passengers and crew died.[10][11]
  • 13 August 1973 – Aviaco Flight 118 crashed near A Coruña, Spain, killing all 85 passengers and crew, while attempting to land at Alvedro Airport (now A Coruña Airport) in heavy fog.
  • 11 September 1973 – JAT Airways Flight 769, a Caravelle VIN, struck Babin Zub Peak while on approach to Titograd Airport, killing all 41 passengers and crew on board. The accident remains the worst in Montenegro.
  • 22 December 1973 – A Sobelair (but operating for Royal Air Maroc) Caravelle VIN (OO-SRD) struck Mount Mellaline while on approach to Tangier Airport, killing all 106 passengers and crew on board.
  • 12 October 1976 – Indian Airlines Flight 171, a Caravelle VIN, crashed at Santacruz Airport following a loss of control caused by an uncontained engine failure and in-flight fire, killing all 95 on board.
  • 18 December 1977 – SA de Transport Aérien Flight 730 crashed into the sea while on final approach to Madeira Airport due to pilot error, killing 36 of 52 on board; the wreckage was found in 2011.
  • 21 December 1980 – A Transportes Aereos del Caribe Caravelle VIR (HK-1810) crashed near Rio Hacha, Colombia due to an explosion and in-flight fire, killing all 70 on board. The cause of the explosion was unknown, but it possibly was a bomb.
  • 18 January 1986 – An Aerovias Caravelle temporarily leased from Ecuador's SAETA, crashed in the jungle after missing its first approach, killing all 93 occupants. The flight had originated in Guatemala City and was to land at Mundo Maya International Airport in the northern department of Petén.

Incidents and accidents

  • Senegal Government[5]:117
  • Rwanda Government[5]:116
  • Mauritanian Government[5]:116
  • Gabon Government (1976–1978)[5]:116
  • Chad Government[5]:117
  • Central African Empire/Republic Government (1970–1979)[5]:112
 Central African Republic

Military and government operators

 United States
 Sweden,  Denmark &  Norway
 New Caledonia
 Ivory Coast
 Central African Republic
Air France Caravelle III deploying a drogue parachute
Aerolineas Argentinas Caravelle VI, Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, 1972

Civil operators


Caravelle 12 (Super Caravelle)
This was the last version of the Caravelle to appear, the most advanced of them all which first flew on March 12, 1971. The Series 12 was a 10B with a noticeably longer fuselage, stretched by 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in), and a newer uprated version of the JT8D engines with 6,577 kgf (64,500 N; 14,500 lbf) of unitary thrust. This allowed for up to 140 passengers over a reduced range. The 12 was aimed primarily at the charter market, produced to 12 examples starting in 1972. By this point Concorde was in production; this design was originally known in France as Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle. The 12 was often referred to by this name.
Sales: Launch customer for the Series 12 was Sterling Airways with 7 delivered, while the remaining 5 went to Air Inter. Series 12s flew in Europe until October 1996, and in Africa until recently.
Caravelle 12 of Air Inter at Paris Orly Airport in 1974 with an Air Algerie Caravelle in the background
Caravelle 11R
The 11R had a fuselage length of 31.72 m (104 ft 1 in) (70 cm or 28 in more than other variants) and incorporated a 3.32 m × 1.84 m (10.9 ft × 6.0 ft) cargo door in the port side. This enabled it to carry a mixed load of passengers and cargo. First flight of the series 11R was on April 21, 1967.
sales: Only 6 planes were built and delivered to Air Afrique, Air Congo, and Transeuropa of Spain.
Caravelle 10R
A combination of the 10B's engines on the Series VI-R fuselage, creating a smaller but higher powered plane. Maximum weight at take-off was increased to 52,000 kg (115,000 lb) (6,000 kg or 13,000 lb more than the Series I and 2,000 kg or 4,400 lb more than the Series VI-R). It first flew on January 8, 1965 and received the FAA certification on May 23 of that same year.
Sales: 20 were built, starting service with Alia on July 31, 1965. It also flew with Aero Lloyd, CTA, Hispania and SAT, among others.
Caravelle 10B (Super Caravelle)
Based on the Series 10A, this variant offered many modifications in respect to other series. It introduced the leading edge extension (a fillet added to the front of an aircraft wings in order to provide usable airflow at high angles of attack). The wing mounted split flaps and the fuselage was extended 1.40 m (4 ft 7 in), with an increase in passenger capacity to 105. The engines used were the new Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines with 6,350 kgf (62,300 N; 14,000 lbf) of unitary thrust. The 10B first flew on August 31, 1964 and was produced as a run of 22 aircraft.
Sales: launch customer[4] and primary operator of the 10B was Finnair with 8 examples. Aviaco ordered 5 but this was cancelled, with those aircraft going to Sterling Airways, LTU, and Iberia Airlines. Alia and UTA also acquired aircraft.
Caravelle 10A
Based on the Series VII, but intended for the US market, the 10A was 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) longer than the Series VI, with the windows located 200 mm (7.9 in) higher on the fuselage. The sole prototype was powered by two 71.62 kN (16,100 lbf) General Electric CJ-805-23C aft-fan engines and flew for the first time on 31 August 1962. A modified wing with improved flaps was fitted to meet FAA requirements, as was an auxiliary power unit (APU) in the rear fuselage. However TWA cancelled its order for 20 aircraft due to financial problems, and by the time TWA was in a position to purchase new aircraft, the Douglas DC-9 was preferred. After testing the prototype was scrapped
Caravelle VII
This was a Series III, (c/n 042), which was purchased by General Electric, ferried to the United States as Santa Marian 9 and equipped with General Electric CJ805-23 aft-fan engines, becoming, in effect, the engine test-bed for the Caravelle 10A. Flight tests with the new engines began on 29 December 1960 and a second aircraft was planned to be converted, (c/n 063), but this aircraft became the sole Caravelle 10A.
Caravelle VI-R
First Caravelle with thrust reversers. The cockpit windows were made bigger with redesigned layout and more powerful brakes were introduced. It first flew on February 6, 1961, obtaining the FAA certificate on June 5 that same year. It began service with United Airlines on July 14. Dash-6R was powered by Avon Ra-29 Mk. 533R and Mk 535R (R, for Reverse) with a unitary thrust of 5,715 kgf (56,050 N; 12,600 lbf).
Sales: 56 built, 20 for United Airlines. Other series VI customers included Indian Airlines (9), Panair do Brasil (4), Cruzeiro do Sul, Iberia Líneas Aéreas De España (4), LAN Chile (3), Aerolíneas Argentinas (3), TAP Portugal (3). This was also used by Filipinas Orient Airways [3], Aerocesar, Airborne Express and SA Nacionales.
Caravelle VI-N
N standing for "normal".[3] Power-improved version with Avon RA-29/6 Mk 531 and RA 29/6 Mk 531B with 5,535 kgf (54,280 N; 12,200 lbf) of unitary thrust engines. The capabilities were improved and the weights increased; the payload was reduced. The Caravelle VI-N first flew on September 10, 1960 beginning service with Sabena (Belgium) on January 1961. Of the 78 Series III, 5 were upgraded to Series VI N.
Sales: 53 built. Deliveries to Saeta, Corse Air, Europe A.S., Minerve, Pushpaka Aviation and Yugoslav Airlines.
Corse Air VI-N variant
Caravelle III
Later improvements of the Avon led to the Caravelle III. It first flew on 30 December 1959, beginning service with Alitalia in April 1960. The Caravelle III was powered with Rolls-Royce Avon RA-29/3 Mk.527 and RA-29/3 Mk.527B, both with 5,170 kgf (50,700 N; 11,400 lbf) of unitary thrust.
Sales: The Series III was the best-selling Caravelle with 78 built. Of the 32 Series I, 31 were upgraded to Series III standard. Air Inter used 16 of this type for its domestic routes. Major deliveries to Air France, as well as examples for Swissair, Alitalia, SAS, and Royal Air Maroc.
Caravelle IA
This variant had the same external configuration as variant I but with more powerful engines, the Rolls-Royce Avon RA-29/1 Mk.526 giving improved capabilities. The first flight took place on 11 February 1960. Variants I and IA were later converted to the III variant.
Sales: 12 built. Deliveries were to Air France, SAS, Air Algérie, Finnair, and Royal Air Maroc.
Caravelle I
Similar to the original prototypes; first flew on 14 May 1958. This variant was powered by two Rolls-Royce RA-29 Avon Mk.522 with 4,763 kgf (46,710 N; 10,500 lbf) of unitary thrust and a capacity of 80 passengers. The French certification was obtained on 2 April 1959, and the FAA certification was obtained six days later. The first revenue flight took place in that same year with Air France in the Paris-Rome-AthensIstanbul route. The Air France Caravelle F-BHRB "Lorraine" was introduced in the Paris-London route on 27 July 1959.
Sales: 20 sold; to Air France (10), SAS (6), Air Algérie (2), and VARIG (2). One of the VARIG examples was leased by Sud to Air Vietnam and Middle East Airlines before delivery to Royal Air Maroc. In Australia, TAA had planned to re-equip with the Caravelle but as Ansett felt this was too advanced at that stage for their own needs, both airlines were required to purchase the Ansett preference; the less advanced turbo-prop Lockheed L-188 Electra.
data from Lopez[2]
Variant Length Engines Passengers
Caravelle I 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) RA-29 Mk.522 80
Caravelle IA 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) RA-29 Mk.522A 80
Caravelle III 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) RA-29 Mk.527 and 527B 80
Caravelle VI-N 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) RA-29 Mk.531 and 531B 80
Caravelle VI-R 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) RA-29 Mk.533R 80
Caravelle 10R 32.01 m (105 ft 0 in) P&W JT8D-7 80
Caravelle 11R 32.71 m (107 ft 4 in) P&W JT8D-7 89-99
Caravelle 10B 33.01 m (108 ft 4 in) P&W JT8D-7 105
Caravelle 12 36.24 m (118 ft 11 in) P&W JT8D-9 140
The triangular windows of the Caravelle remained unaltered throughout its development


In total, 282 Caravelles of all types were built (2 prototypes or pre-production aircraft and 280 production aircraft), with Sud Aviation's break-even point at around the 200 mark.[2]

Several models were produced over the lifetime of the production run, as the power of the available engines grew and allowed for higher takeoff weights. By this time most of Sud Aviation's design department had turned to working on a supersonic transport of the same general size and range as the Caravelle, naturally naming it the Super-Caravelle; however, this work would later be merged with similar work at Britain's Bristol Aeroplane Company to produce the Concorde. In some configurations, aircraft had a number of rearward-facing passenger seats, an uncommon arrangement for civil aircraft.[2]

The first prototype of the Caravelle (F-WHHH), christened by Madame de Gaulle, was rolled out on 21 April 1955 and flew on 27 May, powered by two British Rolls-Royce RA-26 Mk.522 with 4,536 kgf (44,480 N; 10,000 lbf) of unitary thrust. The crew consisted of Pierre Nadot (first officer), André Moynot (second officer), Jean Avril (mechanic), André Préneron (radio operator) and Roger Beteille. The flight duration was 41 minutes. The second prototype flew a year later on 6 May 1956. The first prototype had a cargo door on the lower left side of the fuselage, but this was removed in the second prototype for an all-seating arrangement. The first order was from Air France in 1956, followed by SAS in 1957. That year Sud-Est merged with Sud-Ouest to become Sud Aviation, but the original SE naming was retained. More orders followed, mainly triggered by presentations at airshows and demonstrations to potential customers. The Caravelle was certified in May 1959 and shortly afterwards entered service with SAS and Air France.[2]

The unusual cockpit window arrangement of the Caravelle.
Detail of the Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engines

Two months later the SNCASE received official notification that its design had been accepted. On 6 July 1953 the SGACC ordered two prototypes and two static airframes for fatigue testing. Sud's design licensed several fuselage features from de Havilland, a company Sud had had dealings with for several earlier designs. The nose area and cockpit layout were both taken directly from the de Havilland Comet jet airliner, while the rest of the plane was locally designed.[2] A distinctive design feature was the cabin windows in the shape of a curved triangle which were smaller than conventional windows but gave the same field of view downwards.

The Committee requested SNCASE re-submit the X-210 as a twin-Avon design. In doing so, they decided not to bother moving the remaining engines from their rear-mounted position; most designs placed the engines under the wing where they could be mounted on the spar for lower overall weight, but SNCASE felt the savings were not worth the effort. This turned out to be a benefit to the design, as the cabin noise was greatly reduced. The revised X-210 design with twin Avons was re-submitted to the SGACC in July 1952.[2]

After studying the various entries, the Comité du Matériel Civil cut the list to three entrants on 28 March 1952: the four-engined Avon/Marbore S.0.60, the twin-Avon Hurel-Dubois project, and the three-Avon Sud-Est X-210. At this point Rolls-Royce started offering a new version of the Avon that could develop 9,000 lbf (40 kN) thrust, making the auxiliary engines on the S.O.60 and the third engine on the X-210 unnecessary.[2]

Response from the French industry was strong, with every major manufacturer sending in at least one proposal, and a total of 20 different designs were received. Most of the proposals used all-turbojet power, although Breguet entered a number of designs for both turbojet and turboprop types; among these was one for an Atar-powered tri-jet to be developed in association with the SNCA du Nord and a turboprop type, all known as Br. 978. Hurel-Dubois entered several turboprop designs based on a narrow fuselage and shoulder mounted wing similar to many regional propliners. Proposals from the SNCA du Sud-Ouest included the S.O.60 with two Rolls-Royce Avon RA.7 engines, with two smaller Turbomeca Marborés as auxiliaries. SNCA du Sud-Est (SNCASE) returned a number of designs from the X-200 to X-210, all of them pure-jet.[2]


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