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Synchronicity

 

Synchronicity

Carl Gustav Jung

Synchronicity is a concept first explained by psychiatrist Carl Jung, which holds that events are "meaningful coincidences" if they occur with no causal relationship, yet seem to be meaningfully related.[1] During his career, Jung furnished several slightly different definitions of it.[2]

Jung variously defined synchronicity as an "acausal connecting (togetherness) principle," "meaningful coincidence", and "acausal parallelism." He introduced the concept as early as the 1920s but gave a full statement of it only in 1951 in an Eranos lecture.[3]

In 1952, he published a paper "Synchronizität als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhänge" (Synchronicity – An Acausal Connecting Principle)[4] in a volume which also contained a related study by the physicist and Nobel laureate Wolfgang Pauli.[5]

Jung's belief was that, just as events may be connected by causality, they may also be connected by meaning. Events connected by meaning need not have an explanation in terms of causality. This contradicts the Axiom of Causality in specific cases but not generally.

Jung used the concept to try to justify the paranormal.[6]

A believer in the paranormal, Arthur Koestler wrote extensively on synchronicity in his 1972 book The Roots of Coincidence.[7]

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Examples 2
  • Relationship with causality 3
  • Criticisms 4
  • Publications 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Bibliography 8
  • External links 9

Description

Diagram illustrating Carl Jung's concept of synchronicity

Jung coined the word "synchronicity" to describe "temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events."

In his book Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Jung wrote:[8]

In the introduction to his book, Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal, Roderick Main wrote:[6]

In his book Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Jung wrote:[8]

Synchronicity was a principle which, Jung felt, gave conclusive evidence for his concepts of archetypes and the collective unconscious.[9] It described a governing dynamic which underlies the whole of human experience and history — social, emotional, psychological, and spiritual. The emergence of the synchronistic paradigm was a significant move away from Cartesian dualism towards an underlying philosophy of double-aspect theory. It has been argued that this shift was essential to bringing theoretical coherence to Jung's earlier work.[10][11]

Even at Jung's presentation of his work on synchronicity in 1951 at an Eranos lecture, his ideas on synchronicity were evolving. On Feb. 25, 1953, in a letter to Carl Seelig, the Swiss author and journalist who wrote a biography of Albert Einstein. Jung wrote, “Professor Einstein was my guest on several occasions at dinner. . . These were very early days when Einstein was developing his first theory of relativity [and] It was he who first started me on thinking about a possible relativity of time as well as space, and their psychic conditionality. More than 30 years later the stimulus led to my relation with the physicist professor W. Pauli and to my thesis of psychic synchronicity.”[4] Following discussions with both Albert Einstein and Wolfgang Pauli, Jung believed that there were parallels between synchronicity and aspects of relativity theory and quantum mechanics.[12] Jung was transfixed by the idea that life was not a series of random events but rather an expression of a deeper order, which he and Pauli referred to as Unus mundus. This deeper order led to the insights that a person was both embedded in an orderly framework and was the focus of that orderly framework and that the realisation of this was more than just an intellectual exercise, but also had elements of a spiritual awakening. From the religious perspective, synchronicity shares similar characteristics of an "intervention of grace". Jung also believed that in a person's life, synchronicity served a role similar to that of dreams, with the purpose of shifting a person's egocentric conscious thinking to greater wholeness.

Lewis Carroll
A close associate of Jung, Marie-Louise von Franz, stated towards the end of her life that the concept of synchronicity must now be worked on by a new generation of researchers.[13] For example, in the years since the publication of Jung’s work on synchronicity, some writers largely sympathetic to Jung's approach have taken issue with certain aspects of his theory, including the question of how frequently synchronicity occurs.

One of Jung's favourite quotes[14] on synchronicity was from Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, in which the White Queen says to Alice: "It's a poor sort of memory that only works backwards."[15]

Examples

In his book Synchronicity (1952), Jung tells the following story as an example of a synchronistic event:

The French writer Émile Deschamps claims in his memoirs that, in 1805, he was treated to some plum pudding by a stranger named Monsieur de Fontgibu. Ten years later, the writer encountered plum pudding on the menu of a Paris restaurant and wanted to order some, but the waiter told him that the last dish had already been served to another customer, who turned out to be de Fontgibu. Many years later, in 1832, Deschamps was at a dinner and once again ordered plum pudding. He recalled the earlier incident and told his friends that only de Fontgibu was missing to make the setting complete – and in the same instant, the now senile de Fontgibu entered the room.[17]

Jung wrote, after describing some examples, "When coincidences pile up in this way, one cannot help being impressed by them – for the greater the number of terms in such a series, or the more unusual its character, the more improbable it becomes."[18]

Wolfgang Pauli
In his book Thirty Years That Shook Physics – The Story of Quantum Theory (1966), George Gamow writes about Wolfgang Pauli, who was apparently considered a person particularly associated with synchronicity events. Gamow whimsically refers to the "Pauli effect", a mysterious phenomenon which is not understood on a purely materialistic basis, and probably never will be. The following anecdote is told:

Relationship with causality

Causality, when defined expansively (as for instance in the "mystic psychology" book The Kybalion, or in the platonic Kant-style Axiom of Causality), states that "nothing can happen without being caused." Such an understanding of causality is incompatible with synchronicity.

Other definitions of causality (for example, the neo-Humean definition) are concerned only with the relation of cause to effect. As such, they are compatible with synchronicity.

There are also opinions which hold that, where there is no external observable cause, the cause can be internal.[20]

It is also pointed out, that since Jung took into consideration only the narrow definition of causality: only the efficient cause, his notion of "acausality" is also narrow and so is not applicable to final and formal causes as understood in Aristotelian or Thomist systems.[21] The final causality is inherent[22] in synchronicity (because it leads to individuation) or synchronicity can be a kind of replacement for final causality, such finalism is often controversial in science.

Criticisms

Critics assert that standard science, causality, physics, statistics, and probability (for instance, Littlewood's law or the law of truly large numbers) suffice to explain synchronistic events.[23][24] They deem them to be mere "normal events of low probability" when a single sample is being considered. And for a truly large number of samples, synchronistic events are likely to happen.

Among some psychologists, Jung's works, such as The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche, were received as problematic. Fritz Levi, in his 1952 review in Neue Schweizer Rundschau (New Swiss Observations), critiqued Jung's theory of synchronicity as vague in determinability of synchronistic events, saying that Jung never specifically explained his rejection of "magic causality" to which such an acausal principle as synchronicity would be related. He also questioned the theory's usefulness.[25]

In psychology and cognitive science, confirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, and avoids information and interpretations that contradict prior beliefs. It is a type of cognitive bias and represents an error of inductive inference, or is a form of selection bias toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study, or disconfirmation of an alternative hypothesis. Confirmation bias is of interest in the teaching of critical thinking, as the skill is misused if rigorous critical scrutiny is applied only to evidence that challenges a preconceived idea, but not to evidence that supports it.[26]

Likewise, in psychology and sociology, the term apophenia is used for the apparent detection of a pattern or meaning in random or meaningless data.[27] Skeptics, such as Robert Todd Carroll of the Skeptic's Dictionary, argue that the perception of synchronicity is better explained as apophenia. Primates use pattern detection in their form of intelligence,[28] and this can lead to erroneous identification of non-existent patterns. A famous example of this is the fact that human face recognition is so robust, and based on such a basic archetype (essentially two dots and a line contained in a circle), that human beings are very prone to identify faces in random data all through their environment, like the "man in the moon", or faces in wood grain, an example of the visual form of apophenia known as pareidolia.[29]

It has been asserted that Jungian psychology's theory of synchronicity is equivalent to intellectual intuition.[30]

In some cases, synchronicity may cause a kind of mental laziness and a temptation to "(prematurely) give up trying to find a causal explanation."[31]

Publications

  • Also included in his Collected Works volume 8.

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Bernard D. Beitman (2009) "Coincidence Studies: A Freudian Perspective..."
  3. ^ Casement, Ann, "Who Owns Jung?", Karnac Books, 2007. ISBN 1-85575-403-7. Cf. page 25.
  4. ^ a b Since included in his Collected Works volume 8.
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ Koestler, Arthur (1973). The Roots of Coincidence. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71934-4.
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ Jung defined the collective unconscious as akin to instincts in Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious.
  10. ^ Brown, R.S. (2014). Evolving Attitudes. International Journal of Jungian Studies, 6.3, 243-253.
  11. ^ In Synchronicity in the final two pages of the Conclusion, Jung stated that not all coincidences are meaningful and further explained the creative causes of this phenomenon.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Tarnas, Richard, "Cosmos and Psyche", 2006, Penguin Group, New York, Pgs 50–60
  14. ^ Lecture notes, Jung Foundation, New York City, 1980s.
  15. ^ Through the Looking-Glass, by Lewis Carroll, Chapter 5, Wool and Water.
  16. ^
  17. ^ Emile Deschamps, Oeuvres completes : Tomes I–VI, Reimpr. de l'ed. de Paris 1872–74
  18. ^ C. G. Jung Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal, p. 91
  19. ^ Thirty Years That Shook Physics – The Story of Quantum Theory, George Gamow, p. 64, Doubleday & Co. Inc. New York, 1966
  20. ^ Psychologies of Mind: The Collected Papers of John Maze, edited by Rachael Henry
  21. ^ James Arraj (1996) The Mystery of Matter: Nonlocality, Morphic Resonance, Synchronicity and the Philosophy of Nature of St. Thomas Aquinas, ch. 8. Synchronicity and Formal Causality
  22. ^ Victor Mansfield, (1995), Synchronicity, Science and Soul-Making: Understanding Jungian Synchronicity Through Physics, Buddhism, and Philosophy
  23. ^ John Navin, interview with David Hand, (2014), Why Coincidences, Miracles And Rare Events Happen Every Day, Forbes.com
  24. ^ David Lane & Andrea Diem Lane, 2010, DESULTORY DECUSSATION Where Littlewood’s Law of Miracles meets Jung’s Synchronicity, www.integralworld.net
  25. ^
  26. ^ Tim van Gelder, "Heads I win, tails you lose": A Foray Into the Psychology of Philosophy
  27. ^ Brugger, Peter. "From Haunted Brain to Haunted Science: A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Paranormal and Pseudoscientific Thought", Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, edited by J. Houran and R. Lange (North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers, 2001).
  28. ^ Pattern recognition of behavioral events in the nonhuman primate
  29. ^
  30. ^ Bishop, pp. 17–20.
  31. ^ Charles Tart, Causality and Synchronicity - Steps Toward Clarification, (1981), Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, vol. 75, pp. 121-141.

Bibliography

  • Roth, Remo, F., Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus]. Pari Publishing, 2011

External links

  • , 09 (2). pp. 313–321.NeuroQuantology JournalIgor V. Limar (2011). "Carl G. Jung’s Synchronicity and Quantum Entanglement: Schrödinger’s Cat ‘Wanders’ Between Chromosomes".
  • Carl Jung and Synchronicity
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