World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Systems design

Article Id: WHEBN0000041774
Reproduction Date:

Title: Systems design  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Design, Configuration design, Transformation design, Systems modeling, Systems analysis
Collection: Computer Systems, Electronic Design Automation, Software Design, Systems Analysis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Systems design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering.[1][2]

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • Architectural design 1.1
    • Logical design 1.2
    • Physical design 1.3
  • Related topics 2
  • Alternative design methodologies 3
    • Rapid application development (RAD) 3.1
    • Joint application design (JAD) 3.2
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Overview

If the broader topic of product development "blends the perspective of marketing, design, and manufacturing into a single approach to product development,"[3] then design is the act of taking the marketing information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured. Systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing systems to satisfy specified requirements of the user.

Until the 1990s systems design had a crucial and respected role in the data processing industry. In the 1990s standardization of hardware and software resulted in the ability to build modular systems. The increasing importance of software running on generic platforms has enhanced the discipline of software engineering.

Object-oriented analysis and design methods are becoming the most widely used methods for computer systems design. The UML has become the standard language in object-oriented analysis and design. It is widely used for modeling software systems and is increasingly used for high designing non-software systems and organizations.

Architectural design

The architectural design of a system emphasizes on the design of the systems architecture which describes the structure, behavior, and more views of that system.

Logical design

The logical design of a system pertains to an abstract representation of the data flows, inputs and outputs of the system. This is often conducted via modelling, using an over-abstract (and sometimes graphical) model of the actual system. In the context of systems design are included. Logical design includes ER Diagrams i.e. Entity Relationship Diagrams.

Physical design

The physical design relates to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is laid down in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/authenticated, how it is processed, and how it is displayed as In Physical design, the following requirements about the system are decided.

  1. Input requirement,
  2. Output requirements,
  3. Storage requirements,
  4. Processing Requirements,
  5. System control and backup or recovery.

Put another way, the physical portion of systems design can generally be broken down into three sub-tasks:

  1. User Interface Design
  2. Data Design
  3. Process Design

User Interface Design is concerned with how users add information to the system and with how the system presents information back to them. Data Design is concerned with how the data is represented and stored within the system. Finally, Process Design is concerned with how data moves through the system, and with how and where it is validated, secured and/or transformed as it flows into, through and out of the system. At the end of the systems design phase, documentation describing the three sub-tasks is produced and made available for use in the next phase.

Physical design, in this context, does not refer to the tangible physical design of an information system. To use an analogy, a personal computer's physical design involves input via a keyboard, processing within the CPU, and output via a monitor, printer, etc. It would not concern the actual layout of the tangible hardware, which for a PC would be a monitor, CPU, motherboard, hard drive, modems, video/graphics cards, USB slots, etc. It involves a detailed design of a user and a product database structure processor and a control processor. The H/S personal specification is developed for the proposed system.

Related topics

  • Benchmarking — is an effort to evaluate how current systems perform
  • Computer programming and debugging in the software world, or detailed design in the consumer, enterprise or commercial world - specifies the final system components.
  • Design — designers will produce one or more 'models' of what they see a system eventually looking like, with ideas from the analysis section either used or discarded. A document will be produced with a description of the system, but nothing is specific — they might say 'touchscreen' or 'GUI operating system', but not mention any specific brands;
  • Systems architecture - creates a blueprint for the design with the necessary specifications for the hardware, software, people and data resources. In many cases, multiple architectures are evaluated before one is selected.
  • System testing - evaluates the system's actual functionality in relation to expected or intended functionality, including all integration aspects.

Alternative design methodologies

Rapid application development (RAD)

Rapid application development (RAD) is a methodology in which a systems designer produces prototypes for an end-user. The end-user reviews the prototype, and offers feedback on its suitability. This process is repeated until the end-user is satisfied with the final system.

Joint application design (JAD)

Joint application design (JAD) is a methodology which evolved from RAD, in which a systems designer consults with a group consisting of the following parties:

  • Executive sponsor
  • Systems Designer
  • Managers of the system

JAD involves a number of stages, in which the group collectively develops an agreed pattern for the design and implementation of the system.

See also

References

  1. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".
  2. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Defense document "Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms".
  3. ^ Ulrich &  

Further reading

  • C. West Churchman The Design of Inquiring Systems: Basic Concepts of Systems and Organization. Basic Books, New York, 1971, ISBN 0-465-01608-1
  • William Gosling (1962). The design of engineering systems. New York, Wiley
  • Maier, Mark W., and Rechtin, Eberhardt, The Art of Systems Architecting, Second Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000
  • Saltzer, J.H, et al., End-to-End arguments in Systems Design in: ACM Transactions in Computer Systems Vol. 2, nr 4 (Nov 1984), pp 277–288.
  • Ulrich, Karl T. and Eppinger, Steven D., Product Design and Development, Second Edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2000

External links

  • Interactive Systems Design Course by Chris Johnson, 1993
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.