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Technostress

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Technostress

Technostress is the negative psychological link between people and the introduction of new technologies. Where ergonomics is the study of how humans react to and physically fit with machines in their environment, technostress is a result of altered habits of work and collaboration that are being brought about due to the use of modern information technologies at office and home situations.[1] People experience technostress when they cannot adapt to or cope with information technologies in a healthy manner. They feel compulsive about being connected and sharing constant updates, feel forced to respond to work-related information in real-time, and engage in almost habitual multi-tasking. They feel compelled to work faster because information flows faster, and have little time to spend on sustained thinking and creative analysis.

Craig Brod, a leader in the field of technostress research, states that technostress is "...a modern disease of adaptation caused by an inability to cope with the new computer technologies in a healthy manner."[2] Some of the earliest technostress scholarly studies in the field of Management Information Systems show that technostress is an undesirable phenomenon spawned by use of computing and communication devices such as PC's, tablets and smartphones. It is dependent on gender, age and computer literacy. Women experience lower technostress than men, older people experience less technostress at work than younger people and those with greater computers literacy experience lower technostress.[3][4][5][6]

Contents

  • Symptoms and Outcomes 1
  • Coping Strategies 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes and references 4
  • External links 5

Symptoms and Outcomes

Psychological stress can manifest itself physically. Similarly there are a number of symptoms of technostress. One symptom of technostress is anxiety. Anxiety can appear as: irritability, headaches, backaches, eye strain, neck pain, stiff shoulder, joint pains, mental fatigue, depression, nightmares, panic, resistance, and a feeling of helplessness.The anxiety expressed by those experiencing technostress: suffering insomnia, loss of temper, irritability, frustration and can increase errors in judgement and poor job performance if not dealt with. In the 21st century, people are equipped with technology to better serve the clients and most especially those experiencing technostress. People are sitting and facing computer monitors for a longer time which results in physical strain. In the 21st century work environment, people must spend eight hours and more a day at work because it is critical to their security, job satisfaction, and increasingly hazardous to their health. In a technological world, providing people with appropriate and safe physical environment is a necessity. Too much exposure to computer monitors is associated with emotional stress, and people are emotionally affected by technostress in their workplaces. Consequences of technostress include decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment and productivity. A periodic assessment is necessary to check the level of technostress affecting the professionals especially the physical and emotional aspects. Managers should organize technology-based trainings for employees to make them comfortable with technologies and awareness of harmful effects. Technology skills for employees are important to consistently update their technological skills. Institutions, companies, and agencies are needed to employ IT specialist and troubleshooters to maximize system accessibility and provide level of comfort to the employee.

The causes of technostress amount to:[7]

Four Aspects of Technostress: 1. Physical aspects are eye strain, backaches, headaches, stiff shoulders, neck pain, joint pain, dry mouth and throat, muscle tension, stomack discomfort, keyboard related injuries, chest pain, rapid heart rate, irritable bowel syndrome, increased blood pressure, difficulty in breathing, and others. 2. Emotional aspects like irritability, loss of temper, having high state of anxiety when separated from computer monitor, feelings of indifference, frustration, lack of appreciation, depression, guilt, feeling fearful, paranoia that leads to avoiding computers, negative attitudes and others. 3. Behavioral aspects consists of overly comfortable with computers, overspending on computers, insomnia, uncooperativeness and unwillingness, using computer terms in non-computer conversion, smoking, social withdrawal in favor of terminal time, cruising computer stores, drinking alcohol, and others. 4. Psychological aspects composed of information overload to find, analyze, evaluate, and apply it in right context of resources, underwork and routine jobs lead to frustrations when underemployed or when the work done involves only routine operations, job security, where people have afear that computer may replace to human roles, professional jealousy produced by technological competency, demotivation due to prolonged period of any technological activity, uncertainty about job role caused by an increased time working with technology.

There are five conditions that are classified as "technostress creators":[3] “Techno-overload” describes situations where use of computers forces people to work more and work faster. “Techno-invasion” describes being “always exposed” where people can potentially be reached anywhere and anytime and feel the need to be constantly connected. The regular work-day is extended, office work is done at all sorts of hours, and it is almost impossible to "cut away". “Techno-complexity” describes situations where the complex computer systems used at work force people to spend time and effort in learning and understanding how to use new applications and to update their skills. People find the variety of applications, functions, and jargon intimidating and consequently feel stressed. “Techno-insecurity” is associated with situations where people feel threatened about losing their jobs to other people who have a better understanding of new gadgets and computing devices. “Techno-uncertainty” relates to short life cycles of computer systems. Continuing changes and upgrades do not give people a chance to experience at a particular system. People find this unsettling because their knowledge becomes rapidly outdated and they are required to re-learn things very rapidly and often.

Coping Strategies

Technostress can be dealt with.

  • Get adequate, user friendly software
  • Create better communication within the environment
  • Create a level of reassurance, patience, and stability within the environment
  • Maintain an ever-present system of training and education to new and old technologies
  • Avoid using technology
  • Foster sharing of computer related knowledge within the organization
  • A responsive and easily reached help-desk can allay managers’ anxiety and concerns, guide them in using and familiarizing with new computer applications and assure them in case of problems
  • Keep employees “involved” in the general scheme of things in the context of new computer systems. The more involved and familiar they are, the less techno - stressed they would be
  • Encourage people to “experiment” and innovate in the context of computer use
  • Encourage employees to communicate, discuss, and share their knowledge about computers

Ways to eliminate technostress are:[4]

  • conduct stress management activities to lessen and eliminate the problem of technostress
  • exercise like deep breathing, and yoga or tai chi
  • progressive muscle relaxation
  • stay healthy and proper diet
  • take frequent break
  • listening to music
  • stay calm
  • maintain a sense of humor
  • meditation
  • counseling
  • time management
  • job rotation
  • take a technology time-out
  • establish a teamwork relationship
  • balance positive and negative thoughts
  • awareness of technostress
  • positive self talk and recognize that technostress is natural

See also

Notes and references


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ Brod, Craig. Technostress: The Human Cost of the Computer Revolution. Reading, Mass: Addison Weslety, 1984.
  3. ^ a b Tarafdar, M., Ragu-Nathan, T.S., Ragu-Nathan, B. and Tu, Q., The Impact of Technostress on Productivity, Journal of Management Information Systems, Summer 2007
  4. ^ a b Ragu-Nathan, T.S., Tarafdar, M., Ragu-Nathan, B. and Tu, Q., Consequence of Technostress in End Users: Conceptual Development and Empirical Validation, Information Systems Research, December 2008, 19, 4, 417-433.
  5. ^ Tarafdar, M, Tu, Q., Ragu-Nathan, T.S and Ragu-Nathan, B.S. Crossing over to the “Dark Side”: Examining Creators, Inhibitors and Outcomes of Technostress, Communications of the ACM (Contributed Research Article), September 2011.
  6. ^ Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites, European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS). doi: 10.1057/ejis.2014.3.
  7. ^ Ennis, Lisa A. "The Evolution of Technostress." Computers in Libraries, Sept. 2005, 10-12.
  • Bachiller, R. T. (2001): Technostress among library staff and patrons of the U. P. Diliman libraries. University of the Philippines, Diliman.
  • Caguiat, C.A. (2001): Effects of stress and burnout on librarians in selected academic libraries in Metro Manila. University of the Philippines, Diliman.
  • Dimzon, S. (2007): Technostress among PAARL members and their management strategies: a basis for a staff development program. PUP, Manila.
  • Riedl, R., Kindermann, H., Auinger, A., Javor, A. (2012): Technostress From a Neurobiological Perspective: System Breakdown Increases the Stress Hormone Cortisol in Computer Users. Business & Information Systems Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 61–69.
  • Riedl, R. (2013). On the Biology of Technostress: Literature Review and Research Agenda. The DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 18–55.
  • Riedl, R., Kindermann, H., Auinger, A., Javor, A. (2013): Computer Breakdown as a Stress Factor during Task Completion under Time Pressure: Identifying Gender Differences Based on Skin Conductance. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Volume 2013, Article ID 420169.

External links

  • Tecnostress Italian Website: Effects, Laws, Studies, Evaluation, Prevention,
  • Assessing and Managing Technostress (a talk given by Richard A. Hudiburg)
  • Technostress in Libraries by John Kupersmith
  • Technostress and the Organization by Nina Davis-Millis
  • Technostress in Social Networking Sites
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