World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Television Production

Further information: Movie studio, Recording studio and Studio


A television studio is an installation in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom, and personnel will be divided among these workplaces.

Studio floor

The Al Jazeera newsroom

under construction, April 2005
The sister studio for Al Jazeera English in use, November 2011

The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations:

  • decoration and/or sets
  • professional video camera (sometimes one, usually several) on pedestals
  • microphones
  • stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.
  • several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room (PCR)
  • a small public address system for communication
  • a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible

While a production is in progress, people composing a television crew work the studio floor.

Production-control room

The studio control room (SCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. The production control room is occasionally also called a studio control room (SCR) or a "gallery" – the latter name comes from the original placement of the director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC's first studio at Alexandra Palace which was once referred to as like a minstrels' gallery.[1] Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room (TCR) is usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of centralcasting.

Facilities in a PCR include:

  • A video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics and other video sources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a series of racks containing physical television and computer monitors; in others, the monitor wall has been replaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes called a "glass cockpit"), one or more large video screens, each capable of displaying multiple sources in a simulation of a monitor wall.
  • A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitors on the set. The term "vision mixer" is primarily used in Europe, while the term "video switcher" is usually used in North America.
  • A professional audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices.
  • A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital on-screen graphics that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the television screen
  • Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can often control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be manually run by an operator.
  • A still store, or still frame, device for storage of graphics or other images. While the name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images, newer still stores can store moving video clips and motion graphics.
  • The technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vectorscopes and the camera control units (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.
  • In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in the central apparatus room
  • Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent and television crew
  • A signal generator to genlock all of the video equipment to a common reference that requires colorburst

Master-control room

Main article: Master control

The Master control (MCR) room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for the Production control room (PCR). It also makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room. This can include the actual circuitry and connections between

The Master control room in a US television station US, is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials, switch local or television network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter(s), or these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter.


Other facilities

A television studio usually has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond broadcast reference monitors and studio monitors for audio. Among them are:

See also

References

External links

Template:Broadcastingfr:Studio de télévision#Plateau de télévision
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.