Terrorism in Israel

Timeline of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict refers to events from 1948 until present. The conflict between Israelis and Palestinians emerged from intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine between Palestinian Jews and Arabs, often described as the background to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The conflict in its modern phase evolved since the declaration of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948 and consequent intervention of Arab armies on behalf of the Palestinian Arabs.


Main article: Timeline of intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine

Arab-Israeli War


  • May 14 - The British Mandate over Palestine expires.
  • May 14 - Haganah take control of Jaffa. Its 1947 population of 70,000 reduced to 4,000.
  • May 15 - Following a letter from the Agent of the new Provisional Government to President Truman that the state of Israel has been proclaimed as an independent republic within frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations,[2] the United States recognized the provisional government as the de facto authority of the new State of Israel.[3] Members of the Arab League - Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, the Holy War Army and the Arab Liberation Army, marched their forces into what had the previous day ceased to be the British Mandate for Palestine. The League of Arab States sent a cablegram to the Secretary-General of the United Nations saying, On the occasion of the intervention of Arab States in Palestine to restore law and order and to prevent disturbances prevailing in Palestine from spreading into their territories and to check further bloodshed,.[4]
  • June - Violent confrontation between the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) under the command of David Ben-Gurion, and the paramilitary Jewish group Irgun known as The Altalena Affair results in the dismantlement of the Irgun, Lehi, and all Israeli paramilitary organizations operating outside the IDF.

Infiltration by Palestinian fedayeen begin from Egypt across Israeli border resulting in many minor skirmishes, raids and counter-raids, resulting in hundreds of casualties on both sides, including many civilians. One thousand three hundred Israelis were killed or wounded in paramilitary attacks. “Egypt’s President

  • September 19 - Folke Bernadotte, United Nations Peace Envoy, assassinated in Jerusalem.
  • September 22 - the All-Palestine Government is assembled in the Egyptian controlled Gaza Strip, and is recognized by all members of the Arab League, except Jordan.
  • October 28 - Israeli army kill at least 70 villagers at Al-Dawayima.


February–July - Israel concludes Armistice Agreements with neighbouring countries. The territory of the Mandatory Palestine is divided between the State of Israel, the Transjordan and the All-Palestine Government in Gaza, under prefecture of Egypt. During and after the war about 711,000 Palestinian Arabs become displaced and refugees.[5][6][7] 800,000-1,000,000 Jews living in Muslim countries are expelled during or after the war.[8]

February 24 - Armistice signed with Egypt.

February - 148 infiltrators killed by the Israeli army during February in area around Majdal/Ashkelon.[9]

March 23 - Armistice signed with Lebanon.

April 3 - Armistice signed with Transjordan.

June - Israeli army kill 93 infiltrators along Southern Jordan and Gaza Strip borders.[10]

July 30 - Armistice signed with Syria.

July - 59 infiltrators killed by Israeli army. It is estimated that at least 1000 were killed during 1949.[11]

Post 1948 war

In 1949-1953, there are 99 complaints made by Israel about the infiltration of armed groups or individuals and 30 complaints of armed Jordanian units crossing into Israeli territory.[12] Several hundred Israeli civilians are killed by infiltrators, and some are raped and mutilated.[13][14] Israel launches numerous reprisal raids in response. Between 1949 and 1956, 286 Israeli civilians were killed. During the same period, excluding the Suez War, 258 Israeli soldiers were killed. Between 2,700 and 5,000 Arab infiltrators were killed.[15]


The State of Israel is confronted by a wave of Palestinian infiltrations (fedayeen). In 1951, 118 Israelis, including 48 civilians, are killed by such infiltrators. According to Israeli army records an average of 36 infiltrators were killed each month during 1951.[16] Israel begins Retribution Operations as punishment and prevention measures.

February 6/7 - Village of Sharafat, south-west of Jerusalem attacked by Israeli army. 9 villagers killed.[17]


68 Israelis, including 42 civilians, are killed by Palestinian infiltrators. The Israeli army killed a monthly average of 33 people crossing the armisitice lines, including 78 in March and 57 in April.[16]

January 6/7 - Israeli army attack Bayt Jala killing 6, including 2 women and 2 girls.[18]


71 Israelis, including 44 civilians, are killed by Palestinian infiltrators.

April 22 - At least six Jordanian soldiers killed by Israeli sniper fire from West Jerusalem.[19]

May 17–23 - Operation Viper on the track. Seven West Bank villages and a bedouin camp in Israel attacked by Israeli army.

August 11/12 - Operation Vengeance and reprisal. Four West Bank villages attacked by Israeli army, including al-Khader and Surif. Six people killed.

October 16 - Qibya massacre. Ariel Sharon in command of Unit 101 carries out a raid in the village of Qibya. Over 60 Arabs are killed, two-thirds of whom are women and children.


57 Israelis are killed, including 33 civilians. Israeli Border Police record between May and December they killed 51 infiltrators.[20]

March 16/17 - Ma'ale Akrabim massacre: Arab gang attacks an Israeli civilian bus, killing 11.[21]

April 28/9 - Operation Lion. Village of Nahhalin attacked by Israeli army. Nine people killed. Four National Guardsmen, three Jordanian soldiers, the village mukhtar and a woman.[22]

July 10/12 - Operation Eye for an eye. An Israeli company led by Ariel Sharon attacksa post on the Gaza border near Kissufim killing 9 or 10 Palestinian gendarmes.[23]

July 23/24 - start of the Lavon Affair.


74 Israelis are killed, including 24 civilians. The Israeli army record 36 "hostile" infiltrators being killed.[20]

February 28/March 1 - Operation Black arrow. Sharon leads an Israeli attack on an Egyptian army base in the Gaza Strip killing 38 soldiers and two civilians.[24]

August 31/September 1 - Israeli army attacks outskirts of Khan Yunis. 72 Egyptians and Palestinians killed.[25]

October 27/28 - Sharon leads a force of 200 Israeli paratroopers on an attack on Kuntilla. 12 Egyptian soldiers killed.[26]

November 2/3 - Operation Volcano. The Israeli army attacks Egyptian army position in al Sabha and Wadi Siram killing 81 Egyptian soldiers.[27]

December 11/12 - Operation Olive leaves. A large Israeli force commanded by Sharon attacked Syrian positions east of Lake Tiberias. 48 Syrian soldiers killed as well as six civilians.[28]


117 Israelis killed, including 54 civilians but excluding soldiers killed during the attack on the Suez Canal.[29]

April 5 - Moshe Dayan ordered the shelling of the centre of Gaza City with 120mm mortars. 57 civilians and four Egyptian soldiers killed.[30]

October 9 - Qalqilya police station attacked by a battalion sized force from the Israeli army, including armour and artillery. Between 70 and 90 Jordanians killed.[28]

October 29 - The Suez Crisis. Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula with covert assent from France and Britain. The European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal, while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian-supported fedayeen incursions and attacks. Israel completely withdrew six months later when Egypt assured Israel unimpeded navigation and safety.

October 29 - In the Kafr Qasim massacre 48–49 Arab civilians were killed by the Israel Border Police as they returned to their village from work.

Egypt expelled its Jewish and European population.


March - Israel withdraws its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, ending the Suez Crisis.


The Cairo-born Yasser Arafat forms Fatah to conduct guerrilla warfare operations against Israel.


In a new wave of Arab socialism, the Ba'ath party takes power in Iraq and Syria. Among the key targets of the Ba'ath is the support of the Palestinian cause.


February 3 - The Palestine Liberation Organization is founded in Cairo by the Arab League with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader. Even though Ahmad Shuqeiri is the official leader, the organization is more or less controlled by the Egyptian government. The PLO states their goal as the destruction of the State of Israel through armed struggle, and replacing it with an "independent Palestinian state" between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Others around the world, including the first airplane hijackings.



June - The Six-Day War. Israel launches a strike on Egyptian Air Force (June 5), following Egyptian naval blockade of the Straits of Tiran (May 22) and Egyptian military buildup in the Sinai Peninsula (May 16), interpreted as acts of war. Attack quickly turns into a regional war, in which Israel defeats the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and their supporters. It captures the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. The number of war casualties is estimated between 15,000 to 25,000.

September 1, 1967 - The Khartoum Resolution issued at the Arab Summit with eight Arab countries adopts the "three nos": 1. No peace with Israel, 2. No recognition of Israel, 3. No negotiations with Israel.


March 21 - Israel fights the Battle of Karameh against Fatah and Jordanian forces.

1968–1970 - Egypt wages the War of Attrition against Israel.

December 27/28 – Israeli army launch an attack on Beirut airport destroying 13 aircraft, valued at $43.8 million.


February 2 - Yasser Arafat, head of the Fatah party, is appointed chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, replacing Ahmad Shukeiri, after Fatah becomes the dominant force in the PLO.

August 21 - Denis Michael Rohan, an Australian Christian, who was working on an Israeli Kibbutz, set fire to the Al Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, causing extensive damage and destroying the 12th century minbar.[31]

September 22–25 - King Faisal of Saudi Arabia convenes a conference in Rabat, Morroco, to discuss the arson attack on the Al Aqsa Mosque. The leaders of 25 Muslim states attend and the conference calls for Israel to give up territory conquered in 1967. The conference also sets up the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and pledges its support for the Palestinians.[32]


May 8 - Avivim school bus massacre. Palestinian militants coming from Lebanon attack a school bus, killing 12 (mostly children) and wounding another 19.

September, 1970 - After the Palestinian defeat in Black September in Jordan by Jordanian forces, the PLO was driven out to south Lebanon.


January 2 - Murder of the Aroyo children. A Palestinian teenager throws a hand grenade into the moving car of the Aroyo family. The children, aged 4 and 7, are killed and the parents are injured.[33][34]


May 8 - A Sabena airplane from Vienna to Tel Aviv was hijacked by four members of Black September and held at Lod airport. The hijackers demanded the release of 100 Palestinian prisoners. Israeli paratroopers disguised as mechanics entered the aircraft, killed two of the hi-jackers and released 90 passengers.

May 30 - Lod Airport Massacre. On behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Japanese Red Army members enter the waiting area of Lod Airport in Tel Aviv and fire indiscriminately at airport staff and visitors. 24 people killed, and 78 injured.

July 9 - PFLP spokesman and author Ghassan Kanafani and his 17-year-old niece are killed by an Israeli car bomb in Beirut.

July 11 - A grenade thrown in Tel Aviv's bus terminal, injuring 11, claimed to be in retaliation for Kanafani's killing.

July 19 - Dr. Anis al-Sayigh, Director of the Beirut Center for Palestinian Affairs injured by an Israeli letter bomb.

July 25 - Bassam Abu Sharif, chief assistant to George Habash, badly injured by Israeli letter bomb delivered to PFLP offices in Beirut.

August 5 - Ali Hasan Salameh, a Black September commander, leads an attack on an American owned oil storage facility at Trieste, Italy.

September 6 - Munich Massacre of Israeli Olympic team by Palestinian militant group, Black September. The terrorists kill two of the athletes and take nine hostage demanding the release of 250 Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners held in Israel. They call their operation "Ikrit and Biram" after two villages in northern Israel. In an airport shoot-out with the West German police the remaining nine athletes and five of their captors are killed. This leads Israel to launch reprisal assassinations known as Operation Wrath of God.

September 11 - Zadock Ophir, a Mossad clerk at the Israeli embassy in Brussels is shot and badly wounded by a Palestinian.

September 19 - Dr. Ami Shchori, agricultural attache at the Israeli embassy in London, is killed by an Arab letter bomb.

October 17 - Wa'el Zu'aiter, Fatah's representative in Rome, is shot dead by Israeli agents.

December 8 - Mahmud al-Hamshari, PLO representative in Paris, is badly wounded by an Israeli bomb. He dies a month later.

December 28 - Black September gunmen enter the Israeli embassy in Bangkok and take six Israeli hostage. They demand the release of 36 Palestinians. The hostages are released unharmed.


January 24 - Hussein Abu al-Khair, Fatah representative in Cyprus, killed by an Israeli bomb in Nicosia.

January 26 - Baruch Cohen, Mossad director of operations against Palestinians in Europe, killed in Madrid by a Fatah gunman.

February 22 - Israeli Air Force jets shoot down a Libyan Airlines Boeing over Sinai, killing 104 passengers and crew.

March 6 - Black September gunmen attack the Saudi embassy in Khartoum demanding the release of Abu Dawud held in Jordan. They murder the American ambassador, Cleo Noel, the retiring American charge d'affairs, George Moore and a Belgian diplomat, Guy Eid.

March 12 - Simha Gilzer, a Mossad agent, shot dead in Nicosia by Palestinian gunmen.

April 4 - Dr. Basil al-Qubaisi, PFLP official, killed by Israeli agents in Paris.

April 9 - Israeli commando raid against PLO targets in Beirut, Lebanon (Operation Spring of Youth). Muhammad Yusif Najjar, Kamal Udwan and Kamal Nasser are killed in their homes. The resulting demonstrations bring down the Lebanese government.

April 27 - An Israel employee of El Al murdered in Rome by a Palestinian gunman.

June 27 - Muhammad Boudia, an Algerian member of Fatah, killed in Paris by an Israeli bomb.

July 2 - Col. Yosef Alon, Israeli defense attache, shot dead outside his home in Washington DC.

July 21 - Israeli gunmen shoot dead a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway. Six Israelis are captured and put on trial.

October - The Yom Kippur War. Syria and Egypt surprise-attack Israeli forces in the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula on the holiest day of the Hebrew calendar and last day of Ramadan. Jordan, Iraq, and other Arab nations join in and/or support the Arab war effort. Many Israeli prisoners of war are tortured and killed by Egypt and Syria while in captivity.[35][36][37]

October 19 - U.S. President Richard Nixon gives a speech to Congress in which he requests permission to deliver large amounts of weapons to Israel. In response King Faisal announces that Saudi Arabia will stop all oil shipments to the United States. The Netherlands are also included in the oil embargo.

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon


April 11 - Kiryat Shmona massacre. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine General Command crossed the border into Israel from Lebanon. They entered an apartment building and killed all eighteen residents, half of whom were children.

May 15 - Ma'alot massacre. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine attacked a van killing two Israeli Arab women, entered an apartment and killed a family, took over a local school and held 115 students and teachers hostage. 25 Israelis were killed at the school, including 22 children, and 68 were wounded.

October 26–29 - The Arab League recognized the PLO as sole representative of the Palestinians.

November 13 - Yassir Arafat addressed the United Nations General Assembly.


March 4 - Savoy Operation. Eight Palestinian terrorists in two teams landed by boat in Tel Aviv. Shooting and throwing grenades, they captured the Savoy Hotel and take the guests as hostages. Five hostages were freed and eight were killed. Three Israeli soldiers were also killed.

July 4 - A "refrigerator bomb" in Jerusalem kills 15 Israelis and wounds 77.

November 10 - The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), "determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination". The resolution was revoked by Resolution 46/86 on December 16, 1991.

November 13 - An explosive charge went off near Cafe Naveh on Jaffa Road, near the pedestrian mall. Seven Israeli civilians were killed and 45 injured.


January 3 - Mahmud Salih, PLO representative in Paris and manager of an Arab bookshop, killed by Israeli agents.


May 3 - Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem is bombed by Palestinian terrorists. 33 civilians are injured.[38]

July 4 - Operation Entebbe. Air France Flight 139, originating in Tel Aviv, took off from Athens, Greece, heading for Paris. It was hijacked by four terrorists (two from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and two from the radical German militant group Revolutionary Cells). Israel performed a rescue mission to free the 248 passengers and 12 crew members held hostage at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.


January 4 - Sa'id Hammami, PLO representative in London and a well known dove, killed by an Abu Nidal gunman.

11 March 1978 (1978-03-11) – Coastal Road Massacre. Fatah Palestinians killed an American photographer, hijacked a loaded bus and killed 38 more Israelis, including 13 children, and wounded 76.

March 14 - Operation Litani. Israel, in alliance with the mostly Christian South Lebanon Army, launches a limited-scope invasion of Lebanon and attempts to push Palestinian militant groups away from the Israel border. The 7-day offensive results in 100,000 to 285,000 refugees created and between 300 and 1200 Lebanese and Palestinian militants and civilians killed.

June 15 - Ali Yassin, PLO representative in Kuwait, killed by a member of the Abu Nidal group.

August 5 - Yizz al-Din Qalaq, PLO representative in Paris and well-known dove, killed by an Abu Nidal gunman.

September 17 - Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat sign the Camp David Accord, with Israel agreeing to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for peace and a framework for future negotiation over the West Bank and Gaza Strip.


January 22 - Ali Hassan Salameh, head of Yasir Arafat's security unit, Force 17, killed by an Israeli car bomb in Beirut.

March 14 - One Israeli is killed and 13 people are injured when an explosive charge blows up in a trash can in Zion Square.

March 26 - Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Egypt becomes the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel.

April 22 - Samir Kuntar from the Palestine Liberation Front kills 4 Israelis including a four-year-old girl and a two-year-old girl in the Israeli town of Nahariya.


June 1 - Na'im Khudr, PLO representative in Brussels and well-known dove, killed by an Abu Nidal gunman.

July 17: Israel bombs PLO headquarters, which had been located in a civilian area of Beirut and caused more than 300 civilian deaths. This led the United States to broker a shaky cease-fire between Israel and the PLO.

August 29: The 1981 Vienna synagogue attack on the Stadttempel of Vienna, Austria carried out by Palestinian terrorists of the Abu Nidal organization.

October 9 - Majid Abu Sharar, prominent member of Fatah, killed by an Israeli bomb in Rome.

October 20: 1981 Antwerp bombing on October 20, 1981, when a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, Belgium.


May 15, 1982: Israel launches Operation Peace for Galilee into southern Lebanon. Israel claims the invasion was in order to remove PLO forces after several violations of a cease-fire, most notably an assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, by the Abu Nidal Organization. Israel is allied with the Lebanese Christian army against the PLO, Syria, and Muslim Lebanese. As a result of the war, the PLO leadership is driven from Lebanon and relocates to Tunis.

September 1982: Sabra and Shatila massacre. Lebanese Phalangists massacre between 700–3,500 Palestinians in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila, almost all civilians. While no Israeli soldiers were present in the fighting, Israeli Defense Minister, Ariel Sharon, was found to be indirectly responsible by negligence for the massacre by the Kahan Commission, and was asked to resign his position. The commission's conclusions are controversial and remain a subject of debate.[39]

Stagnation (1980s)


April 10 - Dr. Isam Sartawi, close associate of Yasir Arafat and most prominent dove, killed by an Abu Nidal gunman in Lisbon.

August - The Israeli Army withdraws from most of Lebanon in August 1983, maintaining a self-proclaimed "Security Zone" in the south.

December 8 - Murder of Danny Katz: the body of a 14-year-old Israeli is found mutilated with evidence of strangulation, torture, and sexual assault. 5 Arabs are convicted of the murder.[40][41]


April 9 - Sana'a Mouhadlyof the Syrian Social Nationalist Party detonates herself in an explosive-laden vehicle in Lebanon, killing two Israeli soldiers and injuring two more, becoming the first reported female suicide bomber.

October 1 - After three Israeli civilians were killed on their yacht off the coast of Cyprus by Force 17 PLO, the Israeli Air Force carries out Operation Wooden Leg and strikes the PLO base in Tunis, killing 60 PLO members.

October 7 - The Palestine Liberation Front hijacks the Achille Lauro, redirecting the cruise ship to Syria and holding its passengers and crew hostage, demanding the release of 50 Palestinians in Israeli prisons. One man was murdered; Leon Klinghoffer, a Jewish American, was celebrating his 36th wedding anniversary with his wife upon the Achille Lauro. At the age of 69 he was shot in the forehead and chest while sitting in his wheelchair.

December 27 - Intending to hijack El Al jets and blow them up over Tel Aviv, Fatah - Revolutionary Council gunmen open fire with rifles and grenades at the international airports in Rome and Vienna, killing 18 civilians and wounding 138. 6 of the 7 terrorists were either killed or captured.

First Intifada


July 22 - Cartoonist Naji al-Ali shot in the head whilst walking a London street. He died of his injuries on 21 August 1987. It was later revealed that those believed to be responsible where being managed by Mossad agents.

November 25 - 6 Israeli soldiers are killed by infiltrators who flew over the Lebanese border on hang gliders

December 8 - Four Palestinian workers from Jabalya refugee camp are killed when an Israeli army tank transporter runs into their mini-bus at the Erez crossing.

December 8 - First Intifada begins. Violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition.

After the outbreak of the First Intifada, Shaikh Ahmed Yassin creates Hamas from the Gaza wing of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Until this point the Muslim Brotherhood in Gaza had enjoyed the support of the Israeli authorities and had refrained from violent attacks, however, Hamas quickly began attacks on Israeli military targets, and subsequently, Israeli civilians.

The Israeli army killed more than 1,000 Palestinians in the 1st intifada whilst 164 Israelis were killed. Allegedly almost half (1,000) of the total Palestinian casualties were caused by internal fighting among Palestinian factions.5


During 1988 289 Palestinian in the occupied territories were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 15 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 6 Israeli civilians and 4 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]

April 16 - Abu Jihad, (Khalil al-Wazir), head of PLO's military operations, killed in his home in Tunis by a seaborne Israeli assassination squad.

August 1 - King Hussein of Jordan abandoned to the PLO its claim for the West Bank.[43]

November 15 - An independent State of Palestine was proclaimed by the Palestinian National Council meeting in Algiers, by a vote of 253 to 46.


During 1989 285 Palestinian in the occupied territories were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 17 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 19 Israeli civilians and 6 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]

July 16 - First Palestinian suicide attack inside Israel's borders: Tel Aviv Jerusalem bus 405 massacre.


During 1990 125 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 9 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 4 Israeli civilians and 3 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]


During 1991 91 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 6 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 7 Israeli civilians and 1 member of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]

January 14 - Abu Iyad, second in command of Fatah and opposed to Yasir Arafat's support of Saddam Hussein, killed in Tunis by Hamza Abu Zaid who had been recruited by the Abu Nidal organisation.

When the U.S.-led coalition fought to get Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait, Hussein attempted to draw Israel into the war and fired 39 Scud missiles into Israel. To avoid disrupting the U.S.-led coalition, Israel did not retaliate.

Peace Process


October 30 - Madrid Conference.

December 16 - United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86 revoked Resolution 3379 of November 10, 1975 (on Zionism and racism) with a vote of 111 to 25, with 13 abstentions.


During 1992 134 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli army in the occupied territories. An additional 2 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 11 Israeli civilians and 14 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]

May 24 - Murder of Helena Rapp: 15-year-old Israeli girl is stabbed to death on the way to school by a Palestinian terrorist.[44][45][46]

June - Yitzhak Rabin of the Labour Party elected Prime Minister.


During 1993 154 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli army in the occupied territories. An additional 13 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 27 Israeli civilians and 18 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians.[42]

April - Mehola Junction bombing, the first suicide attack by Hamas. One Palestinian bystander was killed by the blast, and eight Israeli soldiers were slightly injured.

August 20 - Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin sign the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government in Oslo. This event is also seen by many people as the definitive end to the First Intifada[47] (although some argue it had effectively ended by 1991–1992). By 1993, the violence of the Intifada had claimed the lives of 1162 Palestinians and 160 Israelis. The IDF criticized these numbers from not distinguishing combatants and non-combatants.


During 1994 106 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 38 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 11 Israeli civilians and 12 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians in the occupied territories.[42]

February 25 - Cave of the Patriarchs attack, Baruch Goldstein opens fire on Palestinian Muslims worshipping at the Ibrahimi Mosque, killing 29 and injuring 125. He is subsequently overpowered and beaten to death by survivors.

April 6 - Hamas carries out their second suicide bombing, in Afula, Israel, killing 8 people.

May 18 - Israeli forces withdraw from Jericho and Gaza City in compliance with the Oslo accords.

July - Arafat returns from exile to head Palestinian National Authority.

October 19–22 Israelis are killed by a Hamas suicide attack on a bus in Tel Aviv. This was the first major suicide bombing in Tel Aviv.

October 26 - Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty is signed by Yizhak Rabin and King Hussein with the mediation of the US government.

November 30 - Afula axe attack: Arab kills a 19-year-old female Israeli soldier with an axe.[48][49]

December 10 - Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


During 1995 42 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 2 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 7 Israeli civilians and 9 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians in the occupied territories.[42]

January 22 - Beit Lid massacre: a double suicide bombing by the Palestinian Islamic Jihad leaves 21 killed in one of the biggest attacks which further divides the Israeli public over the peace process.

April 9 - Kfar Darom bus attack: 8 Israelis are killed and 52 are injured in an Islamic Jihad suicide bombing.[50]

July 24 - Ramat Gan bus bombing: 6 Israelis are killed and 33 are wounded in a Hamas suicide bombing.[51]

August 21 - Ramat Eshkol bus bombing: 5 Israelis are killed in a Hamas suicide bombing and over 100 are injured.[52]

September 28 - Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, also known as Oslo II, signed in Washington, DC.

November 4 - Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated in Tel Aviv by Jewish extremist Yigal Amir. Shimon Peres assumes the position of acting Prime Minister.


During 1996 69 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 3 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 3 Israeli civilians and 19 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians in the occupied territories.[42]

January 5 - Shin Bet kill Yahya Ayyash commander of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades using a telephone bomb.

February 25 to March 4 - A series of suicide attacks in Jerusalem (Jerusalem bus 18 suicide bombings and in the French Hill), Tel Aviv and Ashkelon leave more than 60 Israeli dead. These events are said to have had a major impact on the Israeli elections in May.

April 11 to 27 - Operation of Grapes of Wrath and the 1996 shelling of Qana: Operation Grapes of Wrath (Hebrew: מבצע ענבי זעם) is the Israeli Defense Forces code-name (Hezbollah calls it April War) for a sixteen-day campaign against Lebanon in 1996. Israel conducted more than 1,100 air raids and extensive shelling (some 25,000 shells). 639 Hezbollah cross-border rocket attacks targeted northern Israel, particularly the town of Kiryat Shemona. The conflict escalated on April 18 when Israeli artillery killed 106 civilians in a technical error and Israeli warplanes killed 9 other civilians in the city of Nabatiyeh while sleeping in their two-story building. The conflict was de-escalated on 27 April by a ceasefire agreement banning attacks on civilians.

May - Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud is elected Prime Minister.

June 9 - Murder of Yaron and Efrat Ungar: Married Israeli couple shot dead by Palestinian gunmen while driving with their one-year-old son.[53][54]


During 1997 18 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 4 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 6 Israeli civilians were killed by Palestinians in the occupied territories.[42]

January 15 to 17 - Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron was signed. The agreement called for an IDF withdrawal from 80% of Hebron, and initiation of withdrawal from rural areas in the West Bank, as well as remaining parts of the West Bank apart from settlements and military locations. Israel and the PA agreed to begin negotiations on the permanent status agreement to be completed by May 4, 1999.

March 13 - Island of Peace massacre: A Jordanian soldier opens fire on a large group of Israeli schoolgirls, killing 7 of them and injuring 6.[55]

March 21 - Cafe Apropo bombing: Palestinian suicide bomber kills 3 Israeli women and injures 48.[56]

July 30 - 16 Israelis are killed in a double suicide attack in the major market of Jerusalem. This was the worst killing during Netanyahu's time which is regarded as a relatively quiet period, attributed by Netanyahu to his tit-for-tat policy and his objection to the Palestinian revolving door policy.

September 4 - A Hamas suicide bombing at a pedestrian mall in Jerusalem kills 5 Israelis, including 3 fourteen-year-old girls,[57] and led to Chicago's Persian heritage crisis.

September 25 - Mossad agents make a failed attempt to kill Hamas member Khaled Mashal in Amman.


During 1998 21 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional 6 were killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 8 Israeli civilians and 3 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians in the occupied territories.[42]

October 23 - Benjamin Netanyahu and Yasser Arafat sign the Wye River Memorandum at a summit in Maryland hosted by Bill Clinton. The sides agreed on steps to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip of September 28, 1995 and other related agreements including the Hebron Protocol of January 17, 1997 so that the Israeli and Palestinian sides could more effectively carry out their reciprocal responsibilities, including those relating to further redeployments and security.


During 1999 8 Palestinian were killed by the Israeli security forces, an additional one person was killed by Israeli civilians. In the same period 1 Israeli civilian and 2 members of the Israeli armed forces were killed by Palestinians. in the occupied territories.[42]

May 17 - Ehud Barak of the Labour Party is elected Prime Minister under the One Israel banner.


May 24 - The Israeli Army withdraws from southern Lebanon, in compliance with U.N. Resolution 425. Syria and Lebanon insist that the withdrawal is incomplete, claiming the Shebaa Farms as Lebanese and still under occupation. The UN certifies full Israeli withdrawal.

July - The Camp David Summit between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat aimed at reaching a "final status" agreement collapses after Yasser Arafat would not accept a proposal drafted by American and Israeli negotiators.

Second Intifada


September 28 – 29: Right wing Israeli Opposition Leader Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount which is administered by a Waqf (Under Israeli law, each religious group is granted administration of their holy sites). The day after the visit, violent confrontations erupt between Muslims and Israeli Police. Arafat names the second intifada the Al-Aqsa Intifada after Sharon's visit, for the Al-Aqsa Mosque contained within the Temple Mount compound (holy also to Jews and Christians). This event is considered by some to be one of the possible catalysts of the second intifada. Palestinian leaders (including the Palestinian Minister of Communication, Imhad Falouji) later admit publicly that the Intifada had been planned since the end of the Camp David negotiations. A campaign of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks began September 29, 2000 and within five years had left over 1,068 Israelis dead and over 7,000 injured—69 percent of them civilians. Approximately 3,000 Palestinians were also killed in this conflict.

October 1 – 9: October 2000 events in Israel, solidarity demonstrations held by Palestinian citizens residing in Israel escalate into clashes with Israeli police and Israeli Jewish citizens. 13 Arab civilians (12 with Israeli citizenship) are shot and killed by Israeli police and one Jewish civilian is killed by a Palestinian. In a Hezbollah cross-border raid, 3 Israeli soldiers are killed and their bodies kidnapped and Northern Israel is shelled in an attempt to ignite the Israeli-Lebanese border too, but Israelis decide on limited response.

October 12: The lynching in Ramallah, two Israeli reservists accidentally enter Ramallah, to be arrested by Palestinian Security Forces, later to be publicly lynched and videotaped inside the Police station.

November 22: Two Israeli women were killed and 60 civilians were wounded in a car bomb attack in Hadera.

December 10: Prime Minister of Israel, Ehud Barak, resigns.


January 21–27: Taba Summit. Peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority aimed to reach the "final status" of negotiations. Ehud Barak temporarily withdraws from negotiations during the Israeli elections, subsequently Ariel Sharon refused to continue negotiating in the face of the newly erupted violence.

February 6: Ariel Sharon of Likud is elected Prime Minister and refuses to continue negotiations with Yasser Arafat at the Taba Summit.

March 26: Murder of Shalhevet Pass, a 10-month-old Israeli baby is shot dead by a Palestinian sniper.[58] Israeli public is shocked when the investigation concludes that the sniper deliberately aimed for the baby.[59]

June 1: Dolphinarium massacre. A Hamas suicide bomber exploded himself at the entrance of a club. 21 Israelis killed, over 100 injured, all youth. Five months prior to the bombing, there was a failed terrorist attempt at the same spot.

August 9: Sbarro restaurant massacre. A suicide bomber wearing an explosive belt weighing 5 to 10 kilograms, containing explosives, nails, nuts and bolts, detonated his bomb. In the blast 15 people (including 7 children and a pregnant woman) were killed, and 130 wounded. Both Hamas and the Islamic Jihad initially claimed responsibility.

August 27: Abu Ali Mustafa, the General Secretary of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, is assassinated by an Israeli missile shot by an Apache helicopter through his office window in Ramallah.[60]

October 17: Israeli Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi is assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

December 1: 11 Israeli civilians, 9 of them teenagers, are killed and 188 are injured in a Hamas suicide bombing attack.[61]


March: 25: 9 Palestinians and 131 Israelis were killed within the a period of violence known as the Second Intifada.

March 13: The United States pushes through the passage of Resolution 1397 by the Security Council, demanding an "immediate cessation of all acts of violence" and "affirming a vision of a region where two states, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders".

March 14: Israeli forces continue the raid on Ramallah and other West Bank towns. A helicopter attack near Tulkarm kills Mutasen Hammad and two bystanders. A bomb in Gaza City destroys an Israeli tank which was escorting settlers, killing 3 soldiers and wounding 2. A car bomb in Tulkarm explodes, killing 4 Palestinians. Palestinians execute two accused collaborators in Bethlehem, planning to hang one of the corpses near the Church of the Nativity until Palestinian police stopped them.

March 27: Passover massacre, the Park Hotel in Netanya held a big Passover dinner for its 250 guests. A Palestinian suicide bomber enters the hotel's dining room and detonates an explosive device, killing 30 people and injuring around 140, all civilians. Hamas claims responsibility.

March 28: The Beirut Summit approves the Saudi peace proposal.

March 29: Israeli forces begin Operation Defensive Shield, Israel's largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War.

March 30: A suicide bomber explodes in a Tel Aviv café at around 9:30 pm local time, wounding 32 people. President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell (USA) call on Yasir Arafat to condemn the wave of suicide bombings in Arabic, to his own people. Israeli spokespeople make similar demands. Arafat goes on television and swears in Arabic that he will "die a martyr, a martyr, a martyr". Members of Arafat's personal Al-Aqsa brigade state that they will refuse any form of cease-fire, and that they will continue suicide bombings of civilians in Israel.

March 31: Matza restaurant massacre, a Palestinian Hamas bomber blows himself up in an Arab-owned restaurant in Haifa, killing 15 and injuring over 40 people.

April: Israeli troops exchange gunfire with guards of Yasir Arafat in Ramallah.

April 2: Israeli troops occupy Bethlehem. Dozens of armed Palestinian gunmen occupy the Church of the Nativity and hold the church and its clergy.

April 12: The Battle of Jenin, as part of Operation Defensive Shield, Israeli forces enter a Palestinian refugee camp in Jenin, where about a quarter of suicide bombings since 2000 had been launched from. The battle results in the deaths of 23 Israeli soldiers and 52 Palestinians, of which 30-47 were militants and 5-22 were civilians (sources vary). This particular event sparked a great deal of controversy.

May 9: Muhammad al-Madani, governor of Bethlehem, leaves the Church of the Nativity.

May 18: Israeli Shin Bet officials announce they have arrested six Israelis for conspiring to bomb Palestinian schools in April, including Noam Federman, a leader of the illegal Kach movement of the late Rabbi Meir Kahane, and Menashe Levinger, son of Rabbi Moshe Levinger.

June: Israel begins construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier. Palestinian terror attacks on Israelis subsequently drop by 90%.[62]

June 18: Patt junction massacre, a Palestinian Suicide bomber, an Islamic law student and member of Hamas, detonates a belt filled with metal balls for shrapnel on a bus in Jerusalem. 19 Israelis are killed, and over 74 wounded.

June 24: US President George W. Bush calls for an independent Palestinian state living in peace with Israel. Bush states that Palestinian leaders must take steps to produce democratic reforms, and fiscal accountability, in order to improve the negotiations with Israel. He also states that as Palestinians show control over terrorism, Israel must end operations in the West Bank, and in areas which it entered under Operation Defensive Shield.[63]

July 16: 2002 Immanuel bus attack. Palestinian militants ambush a bus and kill 9 Israeli civilians, including infants. The youngest victim of the Second Intifada is among them.[64][65][66]

July 22: An Israeli warplane fires a missile at an apartment in Gaza City, killing the top of their most wanted list, Salah Shehadeh, top commander of Hamas' military wing, the Izzadine el-Qassam. The apartment building is flattened and 14 civilians are killed (including eight children).[67]

July 31: Hebrew University massacre, 9 students, 4 Israelis and 5 Americans are killed by a suicide bomber at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and over 100 were also injured. The attack is celebrated in the Gaza Strip.[68][69]

July 31: A Hamas member plants a bag containing a bomb in the cafeteria of [17]

August 14: Marwan Barghouti, captured April 15, was indicted by a civilian Israeli court for murdering civilians and membership in a terrorist organisation.

October 21: Karkur junction suicide bombing, 14 Israelis, including 7 civilians, are killed in an Islamic Jihad suicide bombing in Wadi Ara.[70]

November 21: Jerusalem bus 20 massacre, a Hamas suicide bomber detonates himself on a crowded bus in Jerusalem, killing 11 people, and wounding over 50.


January 5: Tel Aviv central bus station massacre. 23 Israeli civilians are killed by a Palestinian suicide bomber.[71]

March 5: Haifa bus 37 suicide bombing. 17 Israelis, including 16 civilians and 9 children, are killed by a Hamas suicide bomber.[72]

March 16: Rachel Corrie, an American member of the International Solidarity Movement is crushed by an IDF bulldozer, becoming the first ISM member to die in the conflict. Members of the group who witnessed her death allege murder, while Israel calls it a "regrettable accident".

March 19: Mahmoud Abbas appointed Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority.

March 24: Hilltop 26, an illegal Israeli settlement near the city of Hebron, is peacefully dismantled by the IDF.

April 30: The Quartet on the Middle East announces the Road map for peace.

May 27: Ariel Sharon states that the "occupation" of Palestinian territories "can't continue endlessly."

June 2: A two-day summit is held in Egypt. Arab leaders announce their support for the road map and promised to work on cutting off funding to terrorist groups.

June 11: Davidka Square bus bombing. A Palestinian suicide bomber kills 17 Israeli civilians.[73][74][75]

June 29: Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah agree to a three-month cease-fire.

July 9: The International Court of Justice rules in a non-binding advisory opinion that the Israeli West Bank barrier is illegal under international law,[76] the United Nations has also condemned the construction of the wall as "an unlawful act of annexation". The United States and Australia defend the security fence saying the wall is a counter-terrorism protective measure and that the onus is on the Palestinian Authority to fight terrorism. The U.S., Canada, Israel and some 30 other democratic states objected to the ICJ consideration of the UN General Assembly request, finding the request loaded and prejudicial, and expressing concern of the ICJ's credibility.[77][78][79]

August 19: Jerusalem bus 2 massacre. A Hamas Palestinian disguised as a Haredi Jew detonates himself with a bomb spiked with ball-bearings on a bus crowded with children. 23 Israelis are killed and over 130 wounded, all civilians.

September 6: Mahmoud Abbas resigns from the post of Prime Minister.

October 4: Maxim restaurant suicide bombing. A 28-year-old Palestinian female suicide bomber, Hanadi Jaradat, explodes herself inside the Maxim restaurant in Haifa. 21 Israelis (Jewish and Arab) were killed, and 51 others were wounded. The restaurant is co-owned by Jewish and Christian Arab Israelis, and was a symbol of co-existence.


January 29 - Gaza Street bus bombing. Ali Yusuf Jaara, a 24-year-old Palestinian policeman from Bethlehem, becomes a suicide bomber and kills 11 Israeli civilians in Jerusalem.[80]

March 14 - 2004 Ashdod Port bombings. 10 Israeli civilians are killed in a suicide bombing. Hamas and Fatah claim responsibility.[80]

March 22 - An Israeli Air Force rocket kills Hamas leader Ahmed Yassin and eleven others in Gaza City.

Apri 17 - An Israeli Air Force rocket kills Hamas leader Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and two others in Gaza City.

May 2 - Murder of Tali Hatuel and her four daughters. Eight-months pregnant woman and her four young daughters are ambushed and killed by Palestinian militants.[81]

August 31 - Beersheba bus bombings. 16 Israeli civilians are killed in a suicide bombing.[82] Hamas claims responsibility.[83]

October 16 - Israel officially ended a 17-day military operation, named Operation Days of Penitence, in the northern Gaza Strip. The operation was launched in response to a Qassam rocket that killed two children in Sderot. About 108–133 Palestinians were killed during the operation, of whom one third were civilians.

November 11 - Yasser Arafat dies at the age of 75 in a hospital near Paris, after undergoing urgent medical treatment (since October 29, 2004).


January 13: Karni border crossing attack. Palestinian terrorists kill 6 Israeli civilians with 200 pound Explosive device, hand grenades, and AK-47 rifles.[33]

February 25: Stage Club bombing. Young Israelis arrive for a surprise birthday party at the Stage Club in Tel Aviv. A Palestinian teenage suicide bomber detonates himself at the entrance to the club. 5 Israelis killed, and about 50 wounded. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.[84]

July 12: HaSharon Mall suicide bombing (July 12, 2005). 5 Israeli civilians are killed and over 90 are injured in a suicide bombing.[85][86][87][88][89]

Post Intifada period - Gaza conflict

After Israel completely withdrew from Gaza in 2005, Hamas and other terrorists unleashed a barrage of daily rocket attacks into Israel. The city of Sderot, for example, one mile away from Gaza, was hit by over 360 Qassam rockets within a six-month period after Israel’s withdrawal. In June 2006, terrorists from Gaza tunneled into Israel, killing two soldiers and kidnapping one. Two weeks later, Hezbollah, supported by Iran and Syria, attacked Israel across the internationally recognized Israeli-Lebanese border, killing eight soldiers and kidnapping two, simultaneously launching a barrage of rockets against civilian towns in northern Israel. Israel responded with a military operation that lasted 34 days. After Hamas fired thousands of rockets at Israeli communities and refused to renew a six-month truce, Israel responded with a military operation against Hamas to protect Israeli citizens. The 22-day operation ended on January 18, 2009. In May 2010, Turkish activists with the Free Gaza flotilla tried to break Israel’s naval blockade of Hamas-controlled Gaza. In August 2010, Lebanese soldiers shot and killed an Israeli soldier during routine IDF maintenance on the border. Three Lebanese soldiers and one Lebanese journalist were killed in the exchange of gunfire.


August 7: An individual IDF deserter and member of the banned Kach group in Israel, Eden Natan-Zada, opens fire on a crowded bus in the Arab town of Shfaram, killing 4 Palestinians and wounding twenty-two. When he runs out of bullets, the bus is stormed by Arab bystanders and Zaada is beaten to death. PM Ariel Sharon and several Israeli leaders condemn the attack and offer condolences to the families.

August 17: Asher Weissgan shoots and kills 4 Palestinians in the West Bank as a protest against the disengagement plan.[90]

September 12: Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. Israel removes all Jewish settlements, many Bedouin communities, and military equipment from the Gaza Strip. Although there is no permanent Israeli presence or jurisdiction in Gaza anymore, Israel retains control of certain elements (such as airspace, borders and ports), leading to an ongoing dispute as to whether or not Gaza is "occupied" or not. Since the disengagement, Palestinian militant groups have used the territory as a staging ground from which to launch rocket attacks and build underground tunnels into Israel.

October 14: Lebanese Prime Minister Fuad Saniora announces Lebanon will be the last Arab country to have any peace with Israel.


January 25: Hamas wins by landslide the majority of seats after the Palestinian legislative election, 2006. Israel, the United States, European Union, and several European and Western countries cut off their aid to the Palestinians; as they view the Islamist political party who rejects Israel's right to exist as a terrorist organization.

June 9: Following the Gaza beach blast, in which seven members of one family and one other Palestinian were killed on a Gaza beach, the armed wing of Hamas calls off its 16-month-old truce. Israel claims it was shelling 250m away from the family's location; Palestinians claimed that the explosion was Israeli responsibility.[91][92] Reports have concluded Israel had not been responsible for the blast.[93][94][95][96][97][98] An Israeli internal investigation report claims the blast was most likely caused by an unexploded munition buried in the sand and not by shelling.

June 13: Israel kills 11 Palestinians in a missile strike on a van carrying Palestinian militants and rockets driving through a densely civilian populated area in Gaza.[99] Nine among those killed are civilian bystanders.

June 25: After crossing the border from the Gaza Strip into Israel, Palestinian militants attack an Israeli army post. The militants kidnapped Gilad Shalit, killed two IDF soldiers and wounded four others. Israel launches Operation Summer Rains.

July 5: First Qassam rocket of increased range is fired into the school yard in the Southern Israeli coastal city of Ashkelon. This has been the first instance of an increased distance Qassam rockets can reach and the first time a significantly large city has been attacked. No one was injured in this attack.[100]

July 12: 2006 Lebanon War: Hezbollah infiltrates Israel in a cross-border raid, kidnaps two soldiers and kills three others. Israel attempts to rescue the kidnapped, and five more soldiers are killed. Israel's military responds, and the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict begins. The conflict results in the deaths of 1,191 Lebanese people and 165 Israelis.[101] Of the Israelis killed, 121 were soldiers and 44 were civilians.[102] It is unclear how many of the Lebanese fatalities were combatants, though Israeli officials reported that an estimated 800 were Hezbollah militants.[103] Approximately one million Lebanese[104] and 300,000–500,000 Israelis were displaced.[105]

July 26: Israel launches a counter-offensive to deprive cover to militants firing rockets into Israel from Gaza. 23 Palestinians killed, at least 16 are identified militants, 76 wounded.

August 14: 2006 Fox journalists kidnapping. Palestinian militants kidnap Fox journalists Olaf Wiig and Steve Centanni, demanding the U.S. to release all Muslims in prison. The two are eventually released on August 27, after stating they have converted to Islam. They both later said that they were forced to convert to Islam at gunpoint.

September: Violence and rivalry erupts between Fatah and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Mahmoud Abbas tries to prevent civil war.[106][107] President Mahmoud Abbas and his moderate party advocate a Palestinian state alongside Israel, while Prime Minister Ismail Haniya and his Islamist party reject Israel's right to exist.[108]

September 26: A UN study declares the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip "intolerable", with 75% of the population dependent on food aid,[109] and an estimated 80% of the population living below the poverty line.[110] The Palestinian economy had largely relied on Western aid and revenues, which has been frozen since Hamas's victory. The situation can also be attributed to Israeli closures, for which Israel and the EU cite security concerns, specifically smuggling, possible weapons transfers and uninhibited return of exiled extremist leaders and terrorists; as well as an extremely high birth rate.[111][112][113][114]

October 11–14: In the midst of an increase of rocket attacks against Israel, the Israeli Air Force fires into the Gaza Strip over a three-day period. 21 Palestinians are killed (17 Hamas militants, 1 al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades militant, and 3 civilians). The two dozen wounded include gunmen and passersby.[115][116] Israel says the offensive is designed to track down the kidnapped soldier and to stop militants firing rockets into Israel. Spokesman Abu Ubaida for Hamas's military wing issued a statement vowing "we will bombard and strike everywhere" in response to the attacks. Makeshift rockets are immediately shot into Israel.

October 20: Brokered by Egyptian mediators, Fatah reaches a deal to end fighting between the Hamas and Fatah factions, both groups agreeing to refrain from acts that raise tensions and committing themselves to dialogue to resolve differences. Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas brushes off comments by President Mahmoud Abbas, head of Fatah, who indicated he could dismiss the Hamas-led cabinet. Abbas unsuccessfully urges Hamas to accept international calls to renounce violence and recognize Israel's right to exist.

Palestinian gunmen (presumably of the Fatah faction) open fire at the convoy of Prime Minister Haniyeh as it passed through a refugee camp in central Gaza.[117]

November 8: Beit Hanoun November 2006 incident. Amidst ongoing rocket fire, Israel shells Beit Hanoun, killing 19 Palestinian civilians (seven children, four women) during the Gaza operations. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert apologises, saying the incident had been an accidental "technical failure" by the Israeli military.


January 19: Israel transfers $100 million in tax revenues to cover humanitarian needs to the office of the Palestinian Authority president, Mahmoud Abbas, as part of a plan to bolster him and keep money out of the hands of the Hamas government.[118]

February: Negotiations in Mecca produced agreement on a Palestinian national unity government signed by Abbas on behalf of Fatah and Khaled Mashal on behalf of Hamas.[119]

March: The Palestinian Legislative Council established a national unity government, with 83 representatives voting in favor and three against. Government ministers were sworn in by Abu Mazen, the chairman on the Palestinian Authority, at a ceremony held simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah.

May 4: The United States sets a timetable for easing Palestinian travel and bolstering Israeli security. Israel including steps like removing specific checkpoints in the West Bank and deploying better-trained Palestinian forces to try to halt the firing of rockets into Israel from Gaza and the smuggling of weapons, explosives and people into Gaza from Egypt. Israel is wary over certain proposals so long as Palestinian militants continue to fire rockets at Israel.[120] The Hamas-led Palestinian government rejected the initiative.[121]

June 7: Battle of Gaza begins, resulting in Hamas taking control of the Gaza Strip from Fatah.

November 27: Annapolis Conference, a peace conference marked the first time a two-state solution was articulated as the mutually agreed-upon outline for addressing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The conference ended with the issuing of a joint statement from all parties.


February 27: Hamas, the Popular Resistance Committees and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad fired a rocket barrage at the Israeli city of Ashkelon.

February 28: Operation Hot Winter is launched in response to rockets fired from the Gaza Strip into Israel. The operation resulted in 112 Palestinians and three Israelis being killed.

May 14: Tony Blair announces new plan for peace and for Palestinian rights, based heavily on the ideas of the Peace Valley plan.[122]

November, 4: Israeli troops made a raid on Gaza, in which they killed six members of Hamas. Hamas responded with rocket attacks on southern Israel.[123]

December: Israel launches Operation Cast Lead against the Hamas controlled Gaza Strip, a full-scale invasion of the territory.


Operation Cast Lead launched near the end of the previous year by Israel, continued until January 18. After 22 days of fighting, Israel and Hamas each declared separate unilateral ceasefires. Casualties of the Gaza War are disputed. According to Hamas, they include as many as 1,417 Palestinians including as many as 926 civilians. According to the IDF, 1,166 Palestinians were killed, and 295 were non-combatants.[124]

April 2: Bat Ayin axe attack. A Palestinian terrorist attacks a group of Israeli children with an axe and a knife, killing one and injuring three.[125][126]

December 24: Killing of Rabbi Meir Hai. Rabbi is killed in a drive-by shooting. Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claims responsibility.[127]


January: Two airstrikes against weapons tunnels used to smuggle rockets and militants attempting to fire mortars into Israeli are carried out by the Israeli Air Force, killing 3 militants and wounding another 7. The militants were members of Hamas and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.

February 10: Tapuah junction stabbing. A Palestinian Authority police officer stabs an Israeli soldier to death.[128][129]

February 24: Murder of Neta Sorek. Israeli woman is stabbed to death by Palestinian terrorists.[130][131]

May: Gaza flotilla raid. Turkish activists with the Free Gaza flotilla try to break Israel’s naval blockade of Hamas-controlled Gaza, but are intercepted by the IDF. When the IDF board the ship, the activists attack them with knives and metal rods. Three Israeli soldiers are taken hostage, beaten, and abused. Nine Turks are shot dead by IDF gunfire.[132]

August 31: Hamas terrorists shoot dead four Israeli civilians near Kiryat Arba, including a pregnant woman.[80][133]

September 2: 2010 direct talks: U.S. launches direct negotiations between Israel and The Palestinian Authority in Washington D.C.[134] September 14: 2010 direct talks: A second round of Middle East peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority concludes in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.[135]

December 18: Murder of Kristine Luken. American woman is stabbed to death by Palestinian terrorists. Another woman is severely injured.[136][137]


Main article: List of violent incidents in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, 2011

March 11: Itamar massacre.[138] Two Palestinians infiltrate the town of Itamar and murder five members of the Fogel family in their beds. Among the victims are three young children, including an infant.[139]

March 23: 2011 Jerusalem bus stop bombing. Hamas bombs a bus station in Jerusalem and kills 1 civilian. 39 injured.[129]

April 7: Hamas school bus attack. Hamas militants bomb an Israeli school bus and kill a teenager.[140]

August 18: 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks. Egyptian and Palestinian militants attack southern Israel and kill 8 Israelis, including 6 civilians. 40 injured. 5 Egyptian soldiers are also killed.[141]

September: Palestine Authority moves a resolution in UN for recognition of Palestine statehood, calling it a 'Palestine Spring'.[142]

November: Palestine wins membership of UNESCO while UN vote on statehood is put off amid no support from France and UK while US had threatened to veto it.[143]


January 1: Gaza fires two white-phosphorus-containing mortars into the area governed by the Eshkol Regional Council. The shells landed in an open field and caused no injuries or damage. A complaint about the white phosphorus was subsequently sent to the UN by Israel.[144]

March 9–15: March 2012 Gaza-Israel clashes. Gaza militants launch over 300 rockets, Grad missiles, and mortar shells into southern Israel, wounding 23 Israeli civilians. Israel retaliates with air strikes on Gazan weapons storage facilities, rocket launching sites, weapon manufacturing facilities, training bases, posts, tunnels and terror operatives, killing 22 militants. 4 Palestinian civilians die during the clashes, though some of their deaths were found to be unrelated to Israeli actions.[145][146][147][148][149]

March 30: it was revealed that the Civil Administration, a unit of the IDF, has over the years covertly earmarked 10% of the West Bank for further settlement.[150]

September 21: September 2012 Egypt-Israel border attack. Militants open fire on Israeli soldiers and civilian workers. 1 soldier is killed.[151]

November 14–21: Operation Pillar of Defense. The Israeli Air Force kills Ahmed Jabari, second-in-command of the military wing of Hamas.[152] Israel strikes 1500 sites in Gaza,[153] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities and apartment blocks.[154] Gaza officials said 133 Palestinians had been killed in the conflict of whom 79 were militants, 53 civilians and 1 was a policeman[155] and estimated that 840 Palestinians were wounded. Hamas fires over 1,456 rockets at southern Israel, killing 6, including a pregnant woman, and injuring hundreds. Rockets are fired at Jerusalem for the first time and at Tel Aviv for the first time since the first Gulf War. A bus is bombed in Tel Aviv on November 21, wounding 28 civilians. Israel retaliates by bombing hundreds of military sites in the Gaza Strip.[156][157][158][159][160]

November 29: United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19,[161] upgrading Palestine to non-member observer state status in the United Nations, was adopted by the 67th session of the UN General Assembly, the date of the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People and the 65th anniversary of the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 181(II) on the Future Government of Palestine. Vote: For: 138; Abs.: 41 Against: 9.

November 30: In response to the UN approving the Palestinian UN bid for non-member observer state status, the Israeli government inner cabinet announced that it approves the building of housing units in the E1 area, connecting Jerusalem and Ma’aleh Adumim.[162]

2012: An annual survey by Shin Bet or Israel Security Agency (ISA) concluded that in 2012, the number of terrorist attacks in the West Bank rose from 320 in 2011 to 578 in 2012, but it was accompanied by a decrease in the number of fatalities. During that same year, 282 attacks were carried out in Jerusalem, compared to 191 in 2011. The increase in attacks is due in part to a 68% rise of attacks using molotov cocktails. However, the number of attacks involving firearms and explosives also grew by 42% — 37 compared to 26 in 2011.[163]


January 15: Four Palestinians killed by IDF within a week.[164]

January 23: Palestinian woman shot dead by IDF soldier, another wounded.[165]

April 30: Israeli civilian killed by Palestinian; the attacker wounded.[166]

August 26: 3 Palestinian civilians killed during an clashes in Kalandia, West Bank.[167]

September 21: An Israeli soldier abducted and killed by Palestinian in Beit Amin.[168]

September 22: Israeli soldier killed by Palestinian sniper in Hebron.[169]

October 1: A Palestinian killed on Israel-Gaza border in by IDF in unclear circumstances.[170]

October 6: 9-year old Israeli girl badly wounded in a Palestinian attack in Psagot.[171]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.