World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Transport in Kazakhstan

Article Id: WHEBN0000016649
Reproduction Date:

Title: Transport in Kazakhstan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Transport in Kyrgyzstan, Transport in Europe, Transport in Armenia, Transport in China, Transport in Cyprus
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Transport in Kazakhstan

The vast territory of Kazakhstan spans across 2.7 million km ². With a low population density, dissociation centers of industry and agriculture, and remoteness from world markets, the need for different modes of transportation in Kazakhstan are vital.


Total: Transportation by rail in Kazakhstan is very important. Kazakhstan Railways provide 68% of all cargo and passenger traffic to over 57% of the country. 15,079 km[1] in common carrier service, excluding industrial lines.

Broad Gauge: 15,079 km of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) gauge (4,000 km electrified) (2008)[1]

Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) is the national railway company.

As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning. This has caused anamolies such as the route from Ural'sk to Aktobe briefly now passing through Russian territory. It also means routes might not now suit modern day Kazakhstani needs.

Railway links with adjacent countries

The strategy of transport development in Kazakhstan until 2015 will be built 1600 km of new electrified and 2700 km of existing railway stations.


  • UN Map
  • reliefweb map



  • [2] The line would branch off the existing railway near Shaquanzi.


  • Proposals to eliminate break of gauge at Druzhba-Alashankou by converting Kazakhstan main line to European gauge.


Towns served by rail

Rapid Transit & Tram Systems


There is a small 8.56 km metro system in Almaty. A second and third metro lines are planned in the future. The second line would intersect with the first line at Alatau and Zhibek Zholy stations.[4]

In May 2011 the construction of the second phase of the Almaty Metro line 1 commenced. The general contractor of construction is Almatymetrokurylys. Currently more than 300 metres of tunnels on the extension project have been excavated.The extension includes 5 new stations and will connect downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be 8.62 km.[5]

The building is divided into 3 phases. The first phase,(current phase), will be the addition of two stations: Sairan and Moscow, a length of 2.7 km.[5] For more details see: Almaty Metro.

There is still a tram system which opened in 1937. However, with the metro construction, 8 of the 10 lines were closed and now there are only 2 lines. They total 23 km.[6]


The Astana Metro system is under construction.


The system was opened between 1959 and 1978 and the tram is a popular form of transport in Oskemen/Ust-Kamenogorsk. At its peak it had 6 routes, but now has 4 routes in operation. It has a fleet of 50 working tram cars.[7]


There is an 86 km tram network, which began service in 1965 with, as of 2012, 20 regular and 3 special routes. The network has a 60% share of the local public transport market. Its fleet of 115 trams are due to be replaced and in 2012 the city announced plans to purchase 100 new trams.[8]


There are 2 tram lines in this city.[9]


Al-Farabi street, Almaty, Esentai Tower.

Total: 189,000 km\117,445 mi (2002)[10]
Paved: 108,100 km\67,173 mi(2002)
Unpaved: 80,900 km/50,272;mi(2002)

It is stated in the CIA Factbook that Kazakhstan has a total road network of 93,612 km which is made up of: paved: 84,100 km and unpaved: 9,512 km. (2008)[1]

As of May 2011 in Kazakhstan there were 3,264,400 registered cars.[11] Kazakhstan has a road network stretching over 96,000 km, most of which is in need of modernization and repair.

5 international road routes pass thorugh Kazakhstan, totaling 23,000 kilometers. These highways are:

In 2009 the country commenced the construction of the "Western Europe - Western China" highway, which will be completed by 2013. The total length of the road will be 8445 km, of which 2,787 km will be in Kazakhstan, (Aktobe, Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty oblasts). The thickness of the asphalt and concrete pavement will be 80 cm, and the expected lifespan of the highway will be 25 years, without a major overhaul, and the maximum speed limit 120 km/h. The project includes a number of road bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage. Simultaneously with the construction of this highway roads will be repaired and built in areas along its route.[12][13][14]


The motorways network in Kazakhstan is rather underdeveloped, mainly due to the low population density in the country, which doesn't require wider roads on long distances. The following are the only existing multilane, double carriage roads in Kazakhstan:


Condensate 658 km; gas 12,317 km; oil 11,201 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2010)[1]

Waterways & Waterborne Transportation

4,000 km on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya)(80%) and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers.(2010)[1]

Ports and harbors

Caspian Sea

On rivers

Merchant Marine

Total: 11 By type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1) (2010)[1]


Kazakhstan has a total of 97 airports (2012)[1] However, it is quoted as having a total of 449 airports in (2001)[10]

The large area of the country and the associated long distances makes air travel a very important component in domestic travel.

Airports - with paved runways

total: 64[1]

  • over 3,047 m: 10
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 5
  • under 914 m: 8 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 33[1]

  • over 3,047 m: 5
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 5
  • under 914 m: 13 (2012)


Total: 3 (2012)[1]


Air Astana - most popular Kazakhstani Air operator

Air Astana (Эйр Астана) is the principal airline and the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan.[15] It operates scheduled domestic and international services on 56 routes from its main hub, Almaty International Airport, and from its 2 secondary hubs, Astana International Airport and Atyrau Airport. It is a joint venture between Kazakhstan’s sovereign wealth fund Samruk-Kazyna (51%), and BAE Systems PLC (49%). It was incorporated in October 2001 and started commercial flights on 15 May 2002. At the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Airshow in the UK, Air Astana was named the Best Airline in Central Asia & India.[16]


Air Astana operates the following destinations (as of April 2009):

Air Astana Boeing 757 aircraft at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok, Thailand
Air Astana Airbus-320 aircraft at Aktau Airport

Domestic (Kazakhstan)



See also

External links

  • Kazakhstan, South Korea to set up bus-assembling JV
  • Air Astana website
  • Kazakhstan Railways website in English
  • Almaty airport details
  • Official website for Astana Airport in English
  • Unofficial website for Astana Airport in English


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CIA: The World Factbook
  2. ^ ENRC to develop and operate the Zhetigen-Khorgos railway line between Kazakhstan and China | International Mining
  3. ^ KAZAKHSTAN - Temir Zholy
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Алматыметро :: Главная страница
  6. ^ Subways and Trams In Kazakstan: Almaty's Metro
  7. ^ Усть-Каменогорский трамвай :: Введение
  8. ^ Pavlodar
  9. ^ | главный сайт Темиртау
  10. ^ a b Transportation - Kazakhstan - infrastructure
  11. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Западная Европа - Западный Китай Международный Транзитный коридор
  15. ^ "Head Office." Air Astana. Retrieved on 21 December 2010. "Registered office 4A, Zakarpatskaya Street, Almaty, 050039, Kazakhstan"
  16. ^ "Air Astana named Best Airline in Central Asia & India". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 17 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.