Transvaginal ultrasonography

Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the Pouch of Douglas. The procedure may lead to other medically relevant findings in the pelvis.

Routes

The examination can be performed transabdominally, generally with a full bladder which acts as an acoustic window to achieve better visualization of pelvis organs, or transvaginally with a specifically designed vaginal transducer. Transvaginal imaging utilizes a higher frequency imaging, which gives better resolution of the ovaries, uterus and endometrium (the fallopian tubes are generally not seen unless distended), but is limited to depth of image penetration, whereas larger lesions reaching into the abdomen are better seen transabdominally. Having a full bladder for the transabdominal portion of the exam is helpful because sound travels through fluid with less attenuation to better visualize the uterus and ovaries which lies posteriorly to the bladder. The procedure is by definition invasive when performed transvaginally. Scans are performed by health care professionals called sonographers, or gynecologists trained in ultrasound.

Applications

Gynecologic sonography is used extensively:

Through transvaginal sonography ovarian cysts can be aspirated. This technique is also used in transvaginal oocyte retrieval to obtain human eggs (oocytes) through sonographic directed transvaginal puncture of ovarian follicles in IVF.

Gynecologic ultrasonography is sometimes overused when it is used to screen for ovarian cancer in women who are not at risk for this cancer.[3] There is consensus that women with only average risk for ovarian cancer should not be screened with this procedure for cancer.[3]

Sonohysterography is a specialized procedure by which fluid, usually sterile saline, is installed into the uterine cavity, and gynecologic sonography performed at the same time. The procedure delineates intrauterine pathology such as polyps, Asherman's syndrome, uterine malformations or submucous leiomyoma.


See also

References

External links

  • Information about Sonography
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