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Title: Trapezohedra  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Polyhedron
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Set of trapezohedra
Schläfli symbol { } ⨁ {n}
Coxeter diagram
Faces 2n kites
Edges 4n
Vertices 2n + 2
Face configuration V3.3.3.n
Symmetry group Dnd, [2+,2n], (2*n), order 4n
Rotation group Dn, [2,n]+, (22n), order 2n
Dual polyhedron antiprism
Properties convex, face-transitive

The n-gonal trapezohedron, antidipyramid or deltohedron is the dual polyhedron of an n-gonal antiprism. Its 2n faces are congruent kites (also called trapezia in Britain, trapezoids in the US, or deltoids). The faces are symmetrically staggered.

The n-gon part of the name does not reference the faces here but arrangement of vertices around an axis of symmetry. The dual n-gonal antiprism has two actual n-gon faces.

An n-gonal trapezohedron can be decomposed into two equal n-gonal pyramids and an n-gonal antiprism.


These figures, sometimes called deltohedra, must not be confused with deltahedra, whose faces are equilateral triangles.

In texts describing the crystal habits of minerals, the word trapezohedron is often used for the polyhedron properly known as a deltoidal icositetrahedron.


In the case of the dual of a regular triangular antiprism the kites are rhombi, hence these trapezohedra are also zonohedra. They are called rhombohedra. They are cubes scaled in the direction of a body diagonal. Also they are the parallelepipeds with congruent rhombic faces.

A special case of a rhombohedron is one in the which the rhombi which form the faces have angles of 60° and 120°. It can be decomposed into two equal regular tetrahedra and a regular octahedron. Since parallelepipeds can fill space, so can a combination of regular tetrahedra and regular octahedra.

A degenerate form, n=2, form a geometric tetrahedron with 6 vertices, 8 edges, and 4 degenerate kite faces that are degenerated into triangles. Its dual is a degenerate form of antiprism, also a tetrahedron.


The symmetry group of an n-gonal trapezohedron is Dnd of order 4n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger symmetry group Od of order 48, which has four versions of D3d as subgroups.

The rotation group is Dn of order 2n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger rotation group O of order 24, which has four versions of D3 as subgroups.

If the kites surrounding the two peaks are of different shapes, it can only have Cnv symmetry, order 2n.


Star trapezohedra

Self-intersecting trapezohedron exist with a star polygon central figure, defined by kite faces connecting each polygon edge to these two points. A {p/q} trapezohedron has Coxeter-Dynkin diagram .

Uniform dual p/q star trapezohedra up to p=12
5/2 5/3 7/2 7/3 7/4 8/3 8/5 9/2 9/4 9/5

10/3 11/2 11/3 11/4 11/5 11/6 11/7 12/5 12/7

See also


  • Chapter 4: Duals of the Archimedean polyhedra, prisma and antiprisms

External links

  • MathWorld.
  • Virtual Reality Polyhedra The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra
    • Conway Notation for Polyhedra Try: "dAn", where n=3,4,5... example "dA5" is a pentagonal trapezohedron.
  • Paper model tetragonal (square) trapezohedron
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