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Tuber

Tuber is Latin for "swelling", as also used for benign tumours such as in tuberous sclerosis
Oca tubers

Tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store nutrients. They are used by plants to survive the winter or dry months, to provide energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season, and as a means of asexual reproduction.[1] Some sources define the term "tuber" to mean only structures derived from stems;[2] others use the term for structures derived from stems or roots.[3]

Contents

  • Stem tubers 1
    • Potatoes 1.1
  • Root tubers 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Stem tubers

A stem tuber forms from thickened begonia but many tuberous plants have tubers that survive only until the plants have fully leafed out, at which point the tuber is reduced to a shriveled up husk.

Stem tubers generally start off as enlargements of the hypocotyl section of a seedling but also sometimes include the first node or two of the epicotyl and the upper section of the root. The stem tuber has a vertical orientation with one or a few vegetative buds on the top and fibrous roots produced on the bottom from a basal section, typically the stem tuber has an oblong rounded shape.

Tuberous begonia,

  • Cook's Thesaurus has a good inventory of tuber varieties.

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^ , p. 672
  3. ^ , p. 124
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Potato Genome Project
  8. ^ Interrelationships of the number of initial sprouts, stems, stolons [1] and tubers per potato plant Journal Potato Research. Springer Netherlands ISSN 0014-3065 (Print) 1871-4528 (Online)Issue Volume 33, Number 2 / June, 1990
  9. ^ http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Botany/Stems/stem_lecture_01.htm
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200027676
  13. ^
  14. ^ http://sain.utk.edu/invasives/species32.shtml
  15. ^
  16. ^

References

  • Bulb, modified stems with a short fleshy vertical stem, covered by thick fleshy modified leaves that enclose a bud for the next season's growth[16]
  • Caudex, a form of stem modification similar in appearance with tuber
  • Corm, modified stems covered by dry scale-like leaves called a tunic, differing from true bulbs by having distinct nodes and internodes

See also

Plants with root tubers are propagated in late summer to late winter by digging up the tubers and separating them, making sure that each piece has some crown tissue for replanting.

Root tubers, along with other storage tissues that plants produce, are consumed by animals as a rich source of nutrients. The root-tubers of Arrowhead plants of the genus Sagittaria are eaten by ducks.[15]

Hemerocallis fulva plus a number of Daylily hybrids have large root-tubers, H. fulva spreads by underground stolons[12] that end with a new fan that grows roots that produce thick root tubers and then send out more stolons.[13][14]

In root-tubers, there are no nodes and internodes or reduced leaves. Root tubers have one end called the proximal end, which is the end that was attached to the old plant; this end has crown tissue that produces buds which grow into new stems and foliage.[11] The other end of the root tuber is called the distal end, and it normally produces unmodified roots. In stem tubers the order is reversed, with the distal end producing stems. Tuberous roots are biennial in duration: the first year the plant produces root-tubers, and at the end of the growing season, the plant shoots often die, leaving the newly generated tubers. The next growing season, the root-tubers produce new shoots. As the shoots of the new plant grow, the stored reserves of the root-tuber are consumed in the production of new roots, stems, and reproductive organs; any remaining root tissue dies concurrently to the plant's regeneration of next generation of root-tubers.

Root tubers are Ipomoea batatas), have the internal and external cell and tissue structures of a normal root, they produce adventitious roots and stems which again produce adventitious roots.[10]

A tuberous root or storage root, is a modified lateral sweet potato, cassava, and dahlia.

Freshly dug sweet potato plants with tubers.

Root tubers

The stolons are easily recognized when potato plants are grown from seeds. As the plants grow, stolons are produced around the soil surface from the nodes. The tubers form close to the soil surface and sometimes even on top of the ground. When potatoes are cultivated, the tubers are cut into pieces and planted much deeper into the soil. Planting the pieces deeper creates more area for the plants to generate the tubers and their size increases. The pieces sprout shoots that grow to the surface. These shoots are rhizome-like and generate short stolons from the nodes while in the ground. When the shoots reach the soil surface, they produce roots and shoots that grow into the green plant.

The tuber is produced in one growing season and used to perennialize the plant and as a means of propagation. When fall comes, the above-ground structure of the plant dies, but the tubers survive over winter underground until spring, when they regenerate new shoots that use the stored food in the tuber to grow. As the main shoot develops from the tuber, the base of the shoot close to the tuber produces adventitious roots and lateral buds on the shoot. The shoot also produces stolons that are long etiolated stems. The stolon elongates during long days with the presence of high auxins levels that prevent root growth off of the stolon. Before new tuber formation begins, the stolon must be a certain age. The enzyme lipoxygenase makes a hormone, jasmonic acid, which is involved in the control of potato tuber development.

The tuber has all the parts of a normal stem, including nodes and internodes. The nodes are the eyes and each has a leaf scar. The nodes or eyes are arranged around the tuber in a spiral fashion beginning on the end opposite the attachment point to the stolon. The terminal bud is produced at the farthest point away from the stolon attachment and tubers thus show the same apical dominance as a normal stem. Internally, a tuber is filled with starch stored in enlarged parenchyma like cells. The inside of a tuber has the typical cell structures of any stem, including a pith, vascular zones, and a cortex.

[9][8][7]

Potatoes

[6]

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