Uefa coefficients

In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. The coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[1] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[2][3] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[4]

National team coefficient

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. The reason why UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups was a request from FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

Old ranking and calculation method

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

  1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
  2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
  3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
  4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
  5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in

New ranking and calculation method

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

  1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
  2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
  3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
  4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted some extra bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
  5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
  6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
  7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
  8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

Final ranking in 2009

The coefficients from November 2009, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2012 qualification groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The new official UEFA coefficients were calculated for the first time in November 2009:[9]

Final ranking in 2011

The coefficients to be calculated for UEFA Euro 2012 final tournament were found by averaging:[10]

The seeding and pot placements of the qualified teams in the draw for Euro 2012 were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 16 November 2011, which are as follows:[11]

Country coefficient

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2012–13 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2014–15 (not 2013–14) UEFA season; however, the actual teams that will be participating are determined at the end of the 2013–14 season when the individual association classifications and national cups are finalized.

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[12] [13]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

  • Clubs that reach the quarter-finals, semi-finals, or final of either the UEFA Champions League or the UEFA Europa League (1 bonus point).
  • Clubs that qualify for the group stage of the Champions League (4 bonus points).
  • Clubs that qualify for the round of 16 of the Champions League (5 bonus points).

Current ranking

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2009–10 to 2013–14, with the 2013–14 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2013–14 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League and 2015–16 UEFA Europa League.

Note: Starting from the 2015–16 season, all associations will have a maximum of three teams entering the Europa League (currently associations 7–9 have four entrants).[14]

As of 26 October 2013 the coefficients are as follows:[15]

Rank
2014
Rank
2013
Mvmt. Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 Coeff. Teams
CL places EL places Total
1 1 Spain Spain (L, C) 17.928 18.214 20.857 17.714 7.714 82.427 7/7 4 3 7
2 2 England England (L, C, LC1) 17.928 18.357 15.250 16.428 7.785 75.748 7/7
3 3 Germany Germany (L, C) 18.083 15.666 15.250 17.928 6.714 73.641 6/7
4 4 Italy Italy (L, C) 15.428 11.571 11.357 14.416 6.166 58.938 5/6 3 6
5 5 Portugal Portugal (L, C) 10.000 18.800 11.833 11.750 3.750 56.133 5/6
6 6 France France (L, C, LC1) 15.000 10.750 10.500 11.750 4.166 52.166 4/6
7 8 +1 Russia Russia (L, C) 6.166 10.916 9.750 9.750 6.083 42.665 5/6 2 4
8 9 +1 Netherlands Netherlands (L, C) 9.416 11.166 13.600 4.214 2.750 41.146 3/6
9 7 −2 Ukraine Ukraine (L, C) 5.800 10.083 7.750 9.500 4.333 37.466 4/6
10 11 +1 Belgium Belgium (L, C) 8.700 4.600 10.100 6.500 4.200 34.100 4/5 3 5
11 10 −1 Turkey Turkey (L, C) 7.600 4.600 5.100 10.200 4.100 31.600 2/5
12 12 Greece Greece (L, C) 7.900 7.600 7.600 4.400 3.100 30.600 2/5
13 13 Switzerland Switzerland (L, C) 5.750 5.900 6.000 8.375 4.400 30.425 3/5
14 16 +2 Austria Austria (L, C) 9.375 4.375 7.125 2.250 4.400 27.525 3/5
15 17 +2 Czech Republic Czech Republic (L, C) 4.100 3.500 5.250 8.500 5.250 26.600 2/4
16 18 +2 Romania Romania (L, C) 6.083 3.166 4.333 6.800 6.125 26.507 2/4 1 3 4
17 19 +2 Israel Israel (L, C) 7.250 4.625 6.000 3.250 3.500 24.625 2/4
18 14 −4 Cyprus Cyprus (L, C) 4.250 3.125 9.125 4.000 2.000 22.500 2/4
19 15 −4 Denmark Denmark (L, C) 4.400 6.700 3.100 3.300 2.400 19.900 2/5
20 22 +2 Croatia Croatia (L, C) 3.000 4.125 3.750 4.375 3.625 18.875 2/4
21 20 −1 Belarus Belarus (L, C) 3.375 5.875 3.125 4.500 1.750 18.625 0/4
22 21 −1 Poland Poland (L, C) 2.125 4.500 6.625 2.500 2.625 18.375 1/4
23 24 +1 Scotland Scotland (L, C) 2.666 3.600 2.750 4.300 3.250 16.566 1/4
24 23 −1 Sweden Sweden (L, C) 2.500 2.600 2.900 5.125 2.800 15.925 1/5
25 27 +2 Norway Norway (L, C) 2.100 2.375 2.300 4.900 2.600 14.275 1/5
26 25 −1 Serbia Serbia (L, C) 3.000 3.500 2.125 3.000 2.500 14.125 0/4
27 28 +1 Bulgaria Bulgaria (L, C) 3.125 4.625 1.500 0.750 3.625 13.625 1/4
28 29 +1 Hungary Hungary (L, C) 2.750 2.750 2.250 3.000 0.875 11.625 0/4
29 26 −3 Slovakia Slovakia (L, C) 2.500 3.000 2.375 1.500 1.625 11.000 0/4
30 32 +2 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (L, C) 1.500 2.000 1.375 3.000 2.500 10.375 0/4
31 30 −1 Slovenia Slovenia (L, C) 1.375 1.500 2.250 3.250 1.625 10.000 1/4
32 31 -1 Georgia (country) Georgia (L, C) 1.750 1.875 2.875 1.500 1.875 9.875 0/4
33 35 +2 Moldova Moldova (L, C) 2.125 2.125 0.500 2.250 2.625 9.625 1/4
34 38 +4 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan (L, C) 1.250 0.875 1.625 1.375 3.125 8.250 1/4
35 34 −1 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C) 1.750 1.875 1.125 1.250 1.500 7.500 0/4
36 33 −3 Finland Finland (L, C) 1.375 1.800 1.500 2.000 0.500 7.175 0/5
37 40 +3 Iceland Iceland (L, C) 1.250 0.375 1.375 1.250 2.500 6.750 0/4
38 39 +1 Latvia Latvia (L, C) 2.250 0.500 0.625 1.250 1.625 6.250 0/4
39 41 +2 Montenegro Montenegro (L, C) 1.125 1.750 0.500 1.375 1.250 6.000 0/4
40 43 +3 Albania Albania (L, C) 1.000 0.875 0.875 0.750 2.000 5.500 0/4
41 37 −4 Lithuania Lithuania (L, C) 1.250 0.625 1.000 1.125 1.250 5.250 0/4
42 42 Republic of Macedonia Macedonia (L, C) 0.500 1.375 1.625 1.250 0.500 5.250 0/4
43 36 −7 Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland (L, C) 1.375 1.000 1.500 1.000 0.250 5.125 0/4
44 46 +2 Luxembourg Luxembourg (L, C) 0.250 0.625 1.125 1.375 1.500 4.875 0/4
45 44 −1 Malta Malta (L, C) 0.750 1.500 0.833 0.875 0.875 4.833 0/4
46 45 −1 Liechtenstein Liechtenstein (C)2 1.000 0.500 2.000 0.000 1.000 4.500 0/1 0 1 1
47 47 Northern Ireland Northern Ireland (L, C) 0.125 1.125 0.500 1.000 0.875 3.625 0/4 1 3 4
48 48 Wales Wales (L, C) 0.250 0.875 0.625 0.500 0.750 3.000 0/4
49 50 +1 Armenia Armenia (L, C) 0.500 0.250 0.125 0.875 1.125 2.875 0/4
50 49 −1 Estonia Estonia (L, C) 0.875 0.250 0.375 0.375 1.000 2.875 0/4
51 51 Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (L, C) 0.000 0.250 0.500 0.500 0.875 2.125 0/4
52 52 San Marino San Marino (L, C) 0.500 0.166 0.000 0.000 0.333 0.999 0/3 2 3
53 53 Andorra Andorra (L, C) 0.500 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.333 0.833 0/3
54 Template:New entry Gibraltar Gibraltar (L, C)
Not a UEFA member
0/0 1 1
  Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates active countries which have teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates countries which have no teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA.
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organize a national league competition as it does not have the necessary amount of national clubs. As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.

UEFA uses this coefficent system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top three league places in the countries ranked 1 to 3 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams in the countries ranked 4 to 6 also gain automatic entry, as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 12. The Champions League holders automatically get the chance to defend their title in the following season’s competition.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases.

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions. There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions. Note: prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the European competitions.

History

ImageSize = width:160 height:400 PlotArea = left:40 right:40 bottom:10 top:10 DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/1960 till:31/12/2013 ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:01/01/1960

TimeAxis = orientation:vertical format:yyyy

Colors =

 id:Germany value:rgb(0    ,0.75 ,0    )
 id:England value:rgb(1    ,0    ,0    )
 id:Italy   value:rgb(0    ,0    ,0.75    )
 id:Spain   value:rgb(1    ,1    ,0    )

PlotData=

 bar:Leaders width:25 mark:(line,black) align:left fontsize:S 
 from:01/01/1960 till:31/12/1966 shift:(20,-3) text:"La Liga" color:Spain
 from:01/01/1967 till:31/12/1975 shift:(20,-3) text:"Football League" color:England
 from:01/01/1976 till:31/12/1984 shift:(20,-3) text:"Bundesliga" color:Germany
 from:01/01/1985 till:31/12/1985 shift:(20,-4) text:"Football League" color:England
 from:01/01/1986 till:31/12/1989 shift:(20,-4) text:"Serie A" color:Italy
 from:01/01/1990 till:31/12/1990 shift:(20,-4) text:"Bundesliga" color:Germany
 from:01/01/1991 till:31/12/1999 shift:(20,-4) text:"Serie A" color:Italy
 from:01/01/2000 till:31/12/2007 shift:(20,-3) text:"La Liga" color:Spain
 from:01/01/2008 till:31/12/2012 shift:(20,-4) text:"Premier League" color:England
 from:01/01/2013 till:31/12/2013 shift:(20,-3) text:"La Liga" color:Spain

Ranking has been published by UEFA since 1979 to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup after the re-organization of the Inter-cities Fairs Cup in 1971. No calculation of coefficients took place prior to that. Later, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. Because the Inter-cities Fairs Cup was limited only to certain clubs and/or by invitation no coefficient calculation was necessary. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system only four leagues have succeeded in being the top European league.[16] Due to the Heysel Stadium disaster English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985 until 1990 and didn't gain any coefficient points during that period.[17]


The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years leading in Europe:

As of 11 April 2013

Rank League Total
1 Spain La Liga 16
2 England First Division/Premier League 15
3 Italy Serie A 13
4 Germany Bundesliga 10

Club coefficient

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[18][19]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[18] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League third qualifying round or the play-off because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition. [19]

Round Points awarded
Champions League Europa League
First qualifying round elimination 0.5 0.25
Second qualifying round elimination 1 0.5
Third qualifying round elimination 1
Play-off elimination 1.5
Group stage participation 4 2
Group stage win 2 2
Group stage draw 1 1
Round of 16 participation 5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation 1 1

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of, the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

UEFA Team Ranking

The top 25 clubs currently as of 26 October, 2013 are as follows:[20]

Rank
2014
Rank
2013
Mvmt Club Country 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 Coeff.
1 1 Barcelona  Spain 30.585 36.642 34.171 27.542 10.542 139.485
2 2 Bayern Munich  Germany 30.616 24.133 33.050 36.585 11.342 135.728
3 4 +1 Real Madrid  Spain 22.585 33.642 36.171 29.542 11.542 133.485
4 3 −1 Chelsea  England 22.585 26.671 33.050 30.328 9.557 122.149
5 5 Manchester United  England 28.585 36.671 16.050 21.285 10.557 113.149
6 9 +3 Benfica  Portugal 21.000 25.760 23.366 28.350 7.750 106.226
7 6 −1 Arsenal  England 25.585 22.671 22.050 21.285 9.557 101.149
8 10 +2 Valencia  Spain 19.585 21.642 25.171 22.542 5.542 94.485
9 8 −1 Porto  Portugal 21.000 31.760 12.366 22.350 6.750 94.226
10 7 −2 Internazionale  Italy 34.085 21.314 20.271 16.883 1.233 93.787
11 11 Atlético Madrid  Spain 24.585 9.642 34.171 13.542 11.542 93.485
12 14 +2 Milan  Italy 19.085 18.314 22.271 19.883 9.233 88.787
13 15 +2 Schalke 04  Germany 3.616 30.133 20.050 22.585 9.342 85.728
14 12 −2 Lyon  France 28.000 19.150 19.100 14.350 4.833 85.433
15 13 −2 Shakhtar Donetsk  Ukraine 11.160 26.016 9.550 18.900 7.866 73.493
16 16 Marseille  France 17.000 20.150 21.100 6.350 4.833 69.433
17 31 +14 Borussia Dortmund  Germany 3.616 10.133 10.050 33.585 9.342 66.728
18 18 CSKA Moskva  Russia 21.233 16.183 17.950 3.450 7.216 66.033
19 24 +5 Tottenham  England 3.585 24.671 10.050 19.285 7.557 65.149
20 19 −1 Paris Saint-Germain  France 3.000 14.150 9.100 27.350 10.833 64.433
21 21 Zenit St. Petersburg  Russia 2.733 18.183 19.950 14.950 8.216 64.033
22 35 +13 Basel   Switzerland 7.150 10.180 20.200 17.675 7.880 63.085
23 37 +14 Rubin Kazan  Russia 14.233 12.183 9.950 19.950 6.216 62.533
24 28 +4 PSV Eindhoven  Netherlands 13.883 20.233 18.720 5.842 3.550 62.229
25 20 −5 Juventus  Italy 18.085 8.314 2.271 25.883 7.233 61.787
  Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.

Top club by period

Top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period listed by year:[21]

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5 year period:

Rank Club Total
1 Spain Real Madrid 14
2 Spain Barcelona 8
3 Italy Juventus 7
4 Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach 5
5 Germany Bayern Munich 3
Portugal Benfica 3
England Leeds United 3
Netherlands Ajax 3
9 England Liverpool 2
Italy Milan 2
11 Spain Real Zaragoza 1
Belgium Anderlecht 1
France Paris Saint-Germain 1
England Chelsea 1
England Manchester United 1

See also

References

External links

  • Official UEFA rankings
  • UEFA rankings - uefaranking.org
  • League and club coefficients at xs4all.nl
  • UEFA Access List
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