World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ventral respiratory group

Article Id: WHEBN0009043852
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ventral respiratory group  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Medulla oblongata, Botzinger complex, Neuroscience of rhythm, Nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, Gustatory nucleus
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ventral respiratory group

The (VRG) is a column of neurons located in the ventrolateral region of the medulla, extending from the caudal facial nucleus to -400μm obex. The four cell groups of the VRG are the rostral nucleus retrofacialis, caudal nucleus retroambiguus, nucleus para-ambiguus, and the pre-Bötzinger complex.

Respiratory effects

The VRG contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons. The VRG is secondarily responsible for initiation of inspiratory activity, after the dorsal respiratory group. The nucleus para-ambiguus is active during inspiration, while the nucleus retrofacialis and the nucleus retroambiguus are active during exhalation.

The VRG is responsible for motor control of inspiratory and expiratory muscles during exercise.

The pre-Bötzinger complex is the hypothesized location of central respiratory rhythm pattern generation circuitry. The pre-Bötzinger complex also contains pacemaker cells which initiate spontaneous breathing. It is currently unclear how this system regulates its output to effect motoneuron bursting, which in turn is responsible for inspiratory muscle innervation. Research into the function of the pre-Bötzinger complex is currently being studied by making use of the in vitro slice preparation.

See also

External links

  • Overview at


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.